the IBM chip-manufacturing plant in Manassas created a plume of groundwater contaminated with solvents
Source: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Hazardous Waste Cleanup: IBM Corporation in Manassas, Virginia
In 1980, Congress passed the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) to provide Federal funding to clean up the most-polluted sites in the United States. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has a computerized inventory of potential hazardous substance release sites, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (CERCLIS).
The plan was for all contaminated sites ("brownfields," in contrast to undeveloped "greenfields" sites) to be cleaned up. After remediation, formerly-contaminated sites will become available for other uses.
For example, the Jordan Bridge was rebuilt across the Southern Branch of the Elizabeth River, through the Atlantic Wood Industries site contaminated with creosote, pentachlorophenol, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins and metals. Once the contamination was isolated, the remainder of the site became available for industrial use.
In the process, the contractor excavating and disposing of the sediment in the Elizabeth River stacked it too close to the piers of the Jordan Bridge. Three of them shifted between 1½ -3½ inches, but the displacement was still within safety tolerances for the bridge.1
Atlantic Wood Industries in Portsmouth, VA
Atlantic Wood Superfund site, where contaminated sediments will be excavated and stored at Atlantic Wood Superfund site (City of Portsmouth)
Source: Environmental Protection Agency Atlantic Wood Industries, Inc
The Superfund is used to clean up sites on the National Priorities List (NPL), when "potentially responsible parties" can not be forced to cover all the cleanup costs. However, only a small percentage of contaminated sites qualify for Federal cleanup funding.
location of the 31 active Superfund sites in Virginia
Source: Environmental Protection Agency Cleanups in My Community
location of the 31 active and 4 closed Superfund sites in Virginia
Source: Environmental Protection Agency National Priorities List Sites in Virginia
EPA's map of Superfund sites in Virginia provides one guide to seeing the concentration of manufacturing in Virginia in the middle on the 20th Century. The small amount of hazardous waste generated in the southwest part of the state reflects the limited number of factories located there, in the days before pollution controls.
Coal mining exposes sulfur that can cause acid mine runoff. Most Virginia coal mines do not leach heavy metals that are toxic enough to attract EPA's attention. A titanum mining site in Nelson/Amherst counties did end up becoming a Superfund site, after sulfuric acid runoff killed fish regularly in the Piney River.
fish kills in the Piney River led to the US Titanium site being added to the Superfund list
Source: Environmental Protection Agency, Superfund Record of Decision: U.S. Titanium, VA (p.8)