Nutria in Virginia

nutria have escaped from commercial fur farms and are a threat to Virginia's marshes
nutria have escaped from commercial fur farms and are a threat to Virginia's marshes
Source: US Fish and Wildlife Service, Nutria

Nutria (Myocastor coypus) are nocturnal rodents weighing up to 20 pounds that thrive in marshes. They are native to South America, not to Virginia, but have migrated into the state after being introduced into Louisiana by commercial fur farmers in 1899. The farmers released thousands of animals in the mid-1900's, when fur farming became no longer economically viable.

They crossed the North Carolina border after World War II, and after 50 years finally extended their range beyond the blackwater swamps in the Coastal Plain to the Chickahominy River.

Nutria have a high reproductive rate, producing up to three litters annually. Nutria are outcompeting native muskrats, and wildlife managers in Virginia consider nutria to be a threat to coastal marshes:1

With their large, orange beaver-like teeth, nutria will eat just about every plant that grows in a marsh. Once established, they are capable of mowing down and digging every available acre of beautiful wetland landscapes, thus turning them into bare patches of mud that then become eroded to open water over time.

nutria eat so many roots that they trigger erosion which converts marshes into open water habitat
nutria eat so many roots that they trigger erosion which converts marshes into open water habitat
Source: US Fish and Wildlife Service, Nutria in water

Nutria were introduced into the Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge in Maryland in the 1940's. The Chesapeake Bay Nutria Eradication Project required 20 years and $27 million to eliminate 14,000 of them from the Delmarva Peninsula.2

If nutria manage to expand north of the Chickahominy River into the rest of Virginia, the invasive animals will thrive in the coastal rivers. Excessive amounts of emergent vegetation in marshes will be uprooted and mudflats will be left unprotected by roots. If phragmites does not quickly cover a new mudflat, then currents and storms will wash away the soil and convert former marshland into open water habitat.

Marshes with natural vegetation are more ecologically valuable than mudflats with phragmites or open water, so Department of Wildlife Resources biologists use "conservation dogs" to smell where nutria are present and then set traps to kill them.3

Invasive Species in Virginia

Threatened, Endangered, Sensitive, and Other "Species of Concern" in Virginia

traps are baited with carrots and apples to capture nutria and prevent their spread north of the Chickahominy River
traps are baited with carrots and apples to capture nutria and prevent their spread north of the Chickahominy River
traps are baited with carrots and apples to capture nutria and prevent their spread north of the Chickahominy River
Source: US Fish and Wildlife Service, Baited trap used to capture nutria and Caged Nutria

Links

nutria have expanded their range into multiple states
nutria have expanded their range into multiple states
Source: US Geological Survey (USGS), NAS - Nonindigenous Aquatic Species

References

1. "Nutria," Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources, https://dwr.virginia.gov/wildlife/information/nutria/; "Menace of the Marsh," Virginia Wildlife, November – December 2021 , https://dwr.virginia.gov/blog/menace-of-the-marsh/; Susan Jojola, Gary W. Witmer, Dale Nolte, "Nutria: An Invasive Rodent Pest or Valued Resource?," Proceedings of the 11th Wildlife Damage Management Conference, 2005, https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/icwdm_wdmconfproc/110/; "USDA and Partners Work to Eliminate Invasive Nutria From Maryland’s Eastern Shore," US Department of Agriculture, August 2, 2021, https://www.usda.gov/media/blog/2018/07/02/usda-and-partners-work-eliminate-invasive-nutria-marylands-eastern-shore (last checked November 6, 2021)
2. "Maryland Mammals - Nutria," Maryland Department of Natural Resources, https://dnr.maryland.gov/wildlife/Pages/plants_wildlife/Nutria.aspx; "USDA and Partners Work to Eliminate Invasive Nutria From Maryland’s Eastern Shore," US Department of Agriculture, August 2, 2021, https://www.usda.gov/media/blog/2018/07/02/usda-and-partners-work-eliminate-invasive-nutria-marylands-eastern-shore (last checked November 6, 2021)
3. "Menace of the Marsh," Virginia Wildlife, November – December 2021 , https://dwr.virginia.gov/blog/menace-of-the-marsh/ (last checked November 6, 2021)


Source: Discover, Nutria Hunted to Save Wetlands


Habitats and Species of Virginia
Virginia Places