Fire Ecology in Virginia

the Rocky Mount Fire in April, 2016 burned over 10,000 acres in Shenandoah National Park, and sent smoke towards Harrisonburg
the Rocky Mount Fire in April, 2016 burned over 10,000 acres in Shenandoah National Park, and sent smoke towards Harrisonburg
Source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Rocky Mount Fire, Virginia

Before the Europeans arrived, it was common for small fires to travel through Virginia forests within every 35 years or so. Native Americans and the early European explorers would commonly travel through recently-burned forests, where the undergrowth had been removed but the bark of the trees only lightly scorched. West of the Allegheny Front, wildland fires were more intense but rarer, burning the forests of what is now West Virginia with mixed severity every 35-100 years.1

forest on hilltop in Fauquier County
Forest on hilltop in Fauquier County

Trees are always vulnerable to storms. An entire tree may be broken by a windstorm, but most often just some branches break off. In that case, the tree will normally survive, because wound tissue grows to restore a protective covering that keeps insects, fungi, and bacteria out of the living phloem and xylem cells of the tree. Trees are also vulnerable to damage by fire, caused most often in nature by lightning. The broken limbs fall to the forest floor and gradually rot, recycling the nutrients into the soil.

In the last century, fire suppression as advocated by Smoky Bear has allowed "dead and down" timber to accumulate. In some places, the woods have accumulated an unnatural fuel load. A wildfire could burn much hotter due to the additional fuel, and have a greater-than-normal impact. The additional heat and the longer burning time could penetrate the bark that normally protects a tree, killing the cells and causing the tree to die.

Virginia state law prohibits open burning within 300 feet of woodland, brushland or fields containing dry grass or other flammable material, from February 15-April 30 except between 4pm-midnight. This includes campfires in the woods - 30 percent of Virginia's wildfires are caused by open burning.2 According to the Virginia Department of Forestry:3

Virginia's wildfire season is normally in the Spring (March & April) and then again in the Fall (October & November). Why do you think this is so? The answer is that during these times the relative humidities are usually lower, winds tend to be higher, and the fuels are cured to the point where they readily ignite. Also hardwood leaves are on the ground providing more fuel, and allowing sunlight to directly reach the forest floor, warming and drying the surface fuels.

Fire activity fluctuates during each month and also varies from year to year. During years Virginia gets adequate rain and snow keeping fire occurance low. Lack of moisture during other years means extended periods of warm, dry, windy, days and therefore increased fire activity.

More than just the woods are at risk. Homes have been built in the woods, and at the edge of the woods. Fires can start at the "wildland urban interface" from human activity - especially burning of trash by homeowners who live far from an urban garbage collection route. In addition, wildland fires that might be of minor risk are now threats to high-value rural homes and the people who live in them, at the end of long dirt roads with no alternative exit route. The 2001 Communities at Risk report identified 855 developments in Virginia that could be affected by a wildland fire:4

Communities at Risk Report
RECORD NAME STATE COUNTY CONGRESSIONAL
DISTRICT
1 Alden VA King George 01
2 Allnut VA King George 01
3 Alps VA Caroline 01
4 Aquia Harbour VA Stafford 01
5 Aquia Hollow VA 01
6 Aquia Station VA Stafford 01
7 Arnolds VA 01
8 Artillery Ridge VA Spotsylvania 01
9 Battle Park Lakes VA 01
10 Baynesville VA Westmoreland 01
11 Beaver Lodge VA 01
12 Berthsville VA 01
13 Bethlehem Fork VA Essex 01
14 Birchwood VA 01
15 Booth VA James City 01
16 Bowling Green VA Caroline 01
17 Bowling Green Pk VA 01
18 Brandywine VA Caroline 01
19 Brays VA Essex 01
20 Broadhurst Acres VA 01
21 Brock Road N. VA 01
22 Burke's Shop VA 01
23 Bushy Ridge VA 01
24 Calthrop Neck Rd VA 01
25 Cardinal Crest/Sedgewick Heights VA 01
26 Cardinal Heights VA 01
27 Cardinal Heights/Belleauwood VA 01
28 Catlett VA Fauquier 01
29 Central Point VA Caroline 01
30 Chancellor Area VA 01
31 Chancellor Meadows VA 01
32 Chancellor West VA 01
33 Chancellor Woods VA 01
34 Chancellorsville Est. VA 01
35 Chestnut Grove VA Lancaster 01
36 Chisel Run VA James City 01
37 Christopher Fork VA Caroline 01
38 Clopton Forest VA 01
39 Coleman Island VA Essex 01
40 Colonial Beach VA Westmoreland 01
41 Colonial Beach Dragway VA 01
42 Colonial Beach Dragway VA Westmoreland 01
43 Corbin VA Caroline 01
44 Cromwell VA Fauquier 01
45 Cropp VA Stafford 01
46 Cropp Rd. Comm. VA 01
47 Dahlgren VA King George 01
48 Decatur Store Comm VA 01
49 Deep Run VA Fauquier 01
50 Deerfield Est. VA 01
51 Deerfield Estates VA 01
52 Desha VA Essex 01
53 Dodds Corner VA Stafford 01
54 Dunnsville VA Essex 01
55 Edgehill VA King George 01
56 Estates Of Elys Ford VA 01
57 Ethel VA Richmond 01
58 Fairview VA Essex 01
59 Farmer's Fork VA 01
60 Farmers VA Caroline 01
61 Farmers Fork VA Richmond 01
62 Ferry Farm VA Stafford 01
63 File VA Caroline 01
64 Five Mile Fork VA Spotsylvania 01
65 Flat Iron VA Westmoreland 01
66 Foneswood VA Richmond 01
67 Four Mile Fork VA 01
68 Fredericksburg VA Fredericksburg (city) 01
69 Garrisonville VA Stafford 01
70 Garrisonville Estates VA 01
71 Garrisonville Estates VA Stafford 01
72 Garrisonville Mid. VA 01
73 Golden Hills VA Fauquier 01
74 Graham Park Shores VA Prince William 01
75 Grant's Hill VA 01
76 Grant's Hill VA 01
77 Greensprings VA York 01
78 Guinea VA Caroline 01
79 Hamiltons Crossing VA 01
80 Hidden Lake VA Stafford 01
81 High Point VA Westmoreland 01
82 Hooes VA King George 01
83 Horner's VA 01
84 Howertons VA Essex 01
85 Hustle VA Essex 01
86 Index VA King George 01
87 Island Farm VA Essex 01
88 Johnson's Corner VA 01
89 Jones Corner VA Caroline 01
90 Joplin Town Area VA 01
91 Kingsmill VA 01
92 Kingspoint VA James City 01
93 Kino VA Essex 01
94 Lackey VA York 01
95 Lake Powell VA James City 01
96 Lancaster Gate VA 01
97 Latanes VA Westmoreland 01
98 Leavells Area VA 01
99 Lee Hill School Dr. VA 01
100 Lee's Hill N. VA 01
101 Lee's Hill S. VA 01
102 Lerty VA Westmoreland 01
103 Liberty Fork VA Caroline 01
104 Locust Hill VA Middlesex 01
105 Locust Hill VA Middlesex 01
106 Longist Forks VA Essex 01
107 Lyells VA Richmond 01
108 Machodoc VA Westmoreland 01
109 Machodoc Estates VA 01
110 Maple Grove VA Westmoreland 01
111 Marlbank VA York 01
112 Maryton VA Caroline 01
113 Massaponax VA Spotsylvania 01
114 Massaponax Ch Rdw VA 01
115 Massaponax Ch.Rd. VA 01
116 Massaponax Chrde VA 01
117 Mathias Point Neck VA King George 01
118 Milford VA Caroline 01
119 Monroe Chapel VA Westmoreland 01
120 Monroe Hall VA Westmoreland 01
121 Monroe Hall VA Westmoreland 01
122 Montross VA Westmoreland 01
123 Moon's VA 01
124 Morris Store VA Westmoreland 01
125 Mount Landing VA Essex 01
126 Mountain View VA 01
127 Mt. Olive VA 01
128 Mt. Olive Church VA 01
129 Muses Beach VA Westmoreland 01
130 N. Bowling Green VA 01
131 Nash Town VA Westmoreland 01
132 New Post VA Spotsylvania 01
133 Newland VA Richmond 01
134 Ninde VA King George 01
135 No Man's Corner VA 01
136 Oak Row VA Richmond 01
137 Old Church VA King and Queen 01
138 Olde Greenwich VA 01
139 Oyster Shell Lndg VA 01
140 Paige VA Caroline 01
141 Parkway Es VA 01
142 Passing VA Caroline 01
143 Paul's Cross Roads VA 01
144 Payne's Store VA 01
145 Pipe Run VA 01
146 Popes Creek Ch. VA 01
147 Port Royal VA Caroline 01
148 Potomac Beach VA Westmoreland 01
149 Prim VA King George 01
150 Queen's Lake VA 01
151 Ramey Fork VA Richmond 01
152 Ramoth Ch. Road VA 01
153 Rappahannock Acad. VA 01
154 Richmond Beach VA Essex 01
155 Rollins Fork VA Caroline 01
156 Roseville Plantation VA 01
157 Ruby VA Stafford 01
158 Ruffins Pond VA Spotsylvania 01
159 Schenck Est. VA 01
160 Schenck Estates VA 01
161 Seaford Rd. VA 01
162 Sexton Hills VA 01
163 Shady Oaks VA 01
164 Shelton Shop Rd. VA 01
165 Shiloh VA King George 01
166 Ship Point VA York 01
167 Singerly VA Richmond 01
168 Skimino Hills VA 01
169 Skimino Lndg. VA 01
170 Smoots VA Caroline 01
171 Snow Hill VA King and Queen 01
172 Somerville VA Fauquier 01
173 Somerville Est VA 01
174 Sowego Forest VA 01
175 Sparta VA Caroline 01
176 Sparta Road Comm VA 01
177 Spots. Mall Area VA 01
178 Spotswd Furnace Rd VA 01
179 St. Georges Hn. VA 01
180 Stafford Cthouse VA 01
181 Summit VA Spotsylvania 01
182 Supply VA Essex 01
183 Tacketts Mill Estates VA 01
184 Tallent Town VA Richmond 01
185 Tappahannock VA Essex 01
186 Tidemill Est. VA 01
187 Todds Tavern VA Spotsylvania 01
188 Todds Tavern Est. VA 01
189 Turkey Run Est. VA 01
190 Twin Lakes VA Fredericksburg (city) 01
191 Villboro VA Caroline 01
192 W. Garrisonville Rd VA 01
193 Wakefield Corner VA Westmoreland 01
194 Warsaw VA Richmond 01
195 Weedonville VA King George 01
196 Welcome VA King George 01
197 Westmoreland Shores VA 01
198 Widewater Beach VA Stafford 01
199 Widewater Road VA 01
200 Williamsburg Colony VA 01
201 Windsor Forest VA James City 01
202 Windsor Forest VA James City 01
203 Wood Creek VA James City 01
204 Woodford VA Caroline 01
205 Woods Of Tabb VA 01
206 Arrowhead VA Virginia Beach (city) 02
207 Baileys Nexk VA 02
208 Bay Ridge VA Northampton 02
209 Broadwater Bluff 02
210 Clearview VA Northampton 02
211 Deerfield Estates VA 02
212 Gargatha Estates VA 02
213 Johnsontown VA Northampton 02
214 Lake Shore VA 02
215 Latamers Bluff VA 02
216 Macadonia Road VA 02
217 Nelsonia Acres VA 02
218 Nelsonia Westgate VA 02
219 Old Neck VA Northampton 02
220 Plantation VA Northampton 02
221 Point O'Woods VA 02
222 Red Hill VA Accomack 02
223 Red Hill VA Accomack 02
224 Sandbridge VA 02
225 The Meadows VA Northampton 02
226 Whispering Pines VA Accomack 02
227 Angel View VA 03
228 Bailey Creek Estates VA 03
229 Battery Hills VA 03
230 Bradley Acres VA Henrico 03
231 Briarwood VA Portsmouth (city) 03
232 Capt. John Smith VA 03
233 Chickahominy Bluffs VA Henrico 03
234 Chickahominyshores VA 03
235 Cross Creek VA Surry 03
236 Cross Creek VA Surry 03
237 Currituck Farms VA Henrico 03
238 Darbytown Estates VA Henrico 03
239 Elko Station VA 03
240 Fort Gilmer VA 03
241 Granville VA Charles City 03
242 Graves Landing VA Charles City 03
243 Harrison Lake VA Charles City 03
244 Holdcroft VA Charles City 03
245 Minitree Hill VA New Kent 03
246 Old Cannon VA 03
247 Parrish Hill VA 03
248 Patterson's Store VA 03
249 Poplar Hall VA 03
250 Poplar Springs VA Henrico 03
251 River View VA Prince George 03
252 Ruthville VA Charles City 03
253 Turner Woods VA Henrico 03
254 Varina Gardens VA Henrico 03
255 Varina Meadows VA Henrico 03
256 Varina Place VA Henrico 03
257 Wayside VA Charles City 03
258 Whitlock Estate VA 03
259 Wilcox Neck VA Charles City 03
260 Willamson Farm VA 03
261 Windsor VA Henrico 03
262 Woodview Hills VA Henrico 03
263 Yahley Mill VA 03
264 Yahley Mill Rd VA 03
265 Adams Hunt VA 04
266 Battlefield Park VA Petersburg (city) 04
267 Battlefield Park Farms VA 04
268 Bear Hollow Ridge VA 04
269 Black Creek Dev VA 04
270 Blackstone VA Nottoway 04
271 Blackstone Canyon VA 04
272 Bonniville Ln VA 04
273 Brittany VA 04
274 Camelot VA Petersburg (city) 04
275 Cheapside Dv VA 04
276 Cloverdale VA Chesapeake (city) 04
277 Cloverdale VA Chesapeake (city) 04
278 Confederate Hills VA 04
279 Deane's VA 04
280 Deer Flo VA 04
281 Deerfield Estates VA 04
282 Dunlop Estates VA 04
283 East Danieltown Road VA 04
284 Eclipse VA Suffolk (city) 04
285 Elam Church VA Sussex 04
286 Forest Ac Tr VA 04
287 Forest Acres VA Prince George 04
288 Ft. Fisher VA 04
289 Hickory Hill Estates VA 04
290 Hickory Hill Estates VA Chesterfield 04
291 Hidden Valley Est. VA 04
292 Hidden Valley Estates VA 04
293 Hideway Lke VA 04
294 Holly Hills VA Powhatan 04
295 Industrial Park VA 04
296 Jonesboro Church VA Brunswick 04
297 Lake Kenedy Estates VA 04
298 Mannboro Farms VA 04
299 Mansfield South VA 04
300 Moore VA 04
301 Mussel Swamp VA Sussex 04
302 Nottoway River Est. VA 04
303 Owens VA Sussex 04
304 Parkview VA Petersburg (city) 04
305 Pineland VA Chesterfield 04
306 Plank Road West VA 04
307 River Park Subdivision VA 04
308 Riverbend VA Chesapeake (city) 04
309 Riverdale VA Chesapeake (city) 04
310 Riverdale VA Chesapeake (city) 04
311 Russell Point VA Suffolk (city) 04
312 Sleepy Lake VA Suffolk (city) 04
313 Sleepy Lake West VA Suffolk (city) 04
314 Spainville VA Nottoway 04
315 Stoney Ck VA 04
316 Tanglewood VA Chesapeake (city) 04
317 Umphlette VA 04
318 Va Hills VA 04
319 Walnut Hill Estates VA 04
320 Walthall Mill VA Chesterfield 04
321 Whetstone Crk VA 04
322 Adams St. Taz VA 05
323 Advance Mills V VA 05
324 Apomattox VA 05
325 Arbor Park VA Albemarle 05
326 Ashby Run Est. VA 05
327 Ballard Woods VA Albemarle 05
328 Bedford Hills VA Albemarle 05
329 Bl. Ridge Forest VA 05
330 Bl. Ridge View VA 05
331 Blackwt Cv VA 05
332 Blair/Warfield VA 05
333 Blrd Mob Hp VA 05
334 Blue Mountain VA Franklin 05
335 Blue Ridge Acr. VA 05
336 Boydton VA Mecklenburg 05
337 Briarwood Blfd VA 05
338 Brookwood VA Albemarle 05
339 Brookwood VA Albemarle 05
340 Brookwood VA Albemarle 05
341 Bryant Mountain VA Nelson 05
342 Bull Yearling Run VA Greene 05
343 Camptown Dr VA 05
344 Candlewyck VA Albemarle 05
345 Cascade Mt. VA 05
346 Cedar Grove Iii VA 05
347 Chapel Hills VA Albemarle 05
348 Chestnut Ck VA 05
349 Clarksville VA Mecklenburg 05
350 Cobham Park VA Albemarle 05
351 Concord VA Campbell 05
352 Cotton Hl Et VA 05
353 Country View VA Albemarle 05
354 Crestv Pk VA 05
355 Daniel Mountain VA 05
356 Dixie VA Fluvanna 05
357 Doe Run VA Franklin 05
358 Earlysville For. VA 05
359 Earlysville Hts. VA 05
360 Edge Hill 1 VA 05
361 Edge Hill 2 VA 05
362 Ednam Forest VA Albemarle 05
363 Fairgrove 1&2 VA 05
364 Fairview Acres VA Mecklenburg 05
365 Fairview Acres VA Mecklenburg 05
366 Farmington VA Albemarle 05
367 Farmington VA Albemarle 05
368 Finchley VA Mecklenburg 05
369 Flordon VA Albemarle 05
370 Foxwood VA Albemarle 05
371 Glenaire VA Albemarle 05
372 Green Meadows VA Campbell 05
373 Greene Mountain Lake VA 05
374 Hales Ford VA Bedford 05
375 Halifax VA Halifax 05
376 Harmony VA Halifax 05
377 Hickman VA Franklin 05
378 Hickory Ridge VA Albemarle 05
379 Hickory Ridge Rd. VA 05
380 Inglecress VA Albemarle 05
381 Ivy Meadows VA Albemarle 05
382 Ivy Ridge VA Albemarle 05
383 Ivy Woods VA Albemarle 05
384 Jarman Gap Est VA 05
385 Jeffress VA Mecklenburg 05
386 Kingswood VA Nelson 05
387 Kingswood VA Nelson 05
388 Kingswood VA Nelson 05
389 Laconia Estates VA 05
390 Lake Acres VA Albemarle 05
391 Lakewood VA Pittsylvania 05
392 Lakewood VA Pittsylvania 05
393 Langford Farms VA 05
394 Laurel Hills VA Albemarle 05
395 Leftwich Road VA 05
396 Lewis Hill VA 05
397 Liles Court VA 05
398 Lndg. At J-Town VA 05
399 Lodebar VA Nelson 05
400 Loftlands Glen VA 05
401 Logan Village VA Albemarle 05
402 Longwood VA Albemarle 05
403 Mallard Hill VA 05
404 Merifield VA 05
405 Meriwether Hill VA Albemarle 05
406 Middle River Retreat VA 05
407 Midway Acres VA 05
408 Mill Creek VA Nelson 05
409 Miran Forest VA Albemarle 05
410 Mooresville Est. VA 05
411 Mooresville Estates VA 05
412 Mountain Valley VA Henry 05
413 Mountain Valley VA Henry 05
414 Mountain View Lake VA Campbell 05
415 Mt View Park VA 05
416 New Zion Church VA Halifax 05
417 North Pines VA Albemarle 05
418 Nottingham Forest VA Campbell 05
419 Oak Hill Estates VA Halifax 05
420 Orchard Acres VA Albemarle 05
421 Owensville VA Albemarle 05
422 Peacock Hill VA Albemarle 05
423 Piney Grove VA Halifax 05
424 Ponderosa VA Mecklenburg 05
425 Ponderosa VA Mecklenburg 05
426 Pondersoa VA 05
427 Powell Mountain VA Greene 05
428 Quinque Forest VA 05
429 Raintree VA Albemarle 05
430 Reynard Woods VA Albemarle 05
431 Rivanwood VA Albemarle 05
432 Rock Hill Church Rd. VA 05
433 Scottsburg VA Halifax 05
434 Skipwith VA Mecklenburg 05
435 Skyline Crest VA Albemarle 05
436 South Boston VA Halifax 05
437 South Creek VA Fluvanna 05
438 Spring Creek VA Lunenburg 05
439 Spring Hill VA Albemarle 05
440 Spring Hill VA Albemarle 05
441 Spring Valley VA Albemarle 05
442 Stillfield VA Albemarle 05
443 Sugar Hill VA Campbell 05
444 Sugar Lf Mt VA 05
445 Tall Oak VA 05
446 Taylors Gap VA Albemarle 05
447 The Pines VA Albemarle 05
448 The Pines VA Albemarle 05
449 Timberlake VA Campbell 05
450 Tower Hill VA Buckingham 05
451 West Leigh VA Albemarle 05
452 West Woods VA Albemarle 05
453 Westfield VA Albemarle 05
454 Westmoreland VA Albemarle 05
455 Wetsel Village VA 05
456 Whipporwill Hol VA 05
457 Wildwood VA Fluvanna 05
458 Wildwood Valley VA 05
459 Windrift VA Albemarle 05
460 Wintergreen VA Nelson 05
461 Woodridge VA Albemarle 05
462 Woodridge VA Albemarle 05
463 Wyliesburg VA 05
464 Yancey Mills VA Albemarle 05
465 Alpine Acres VA 06
466 Alpine Farms VA 06
467 Arrowwood VA 06
468 Bath Alum Ridge VA 06
469 Bean Hollow VA Shenandoah 06
470 Beverly Town VA 06
471 Blue Rdg Hts VA 06
472 Bobletts Gap VA 06
473 Briar Ridge VA Roanoke 06
474 Bridlewood VA Roanoke 06
475 Buck Mountain VA Highland 06
476 Captains Cove VA 06
477 Castle Rock Mt. VA 06
478 Cedar Grove VA Rockbridge 06
479 Cedar Grove I VA 06
480 Cedar Ridge VA Highland 06
481 Cedar Ridge VA Highland 06
482 Central Valley VA 06
483 Champs Mill Estates VA 06
484 Cherry Hill VA Roanoke (city) 06
485 Chestnut Hills VA Roanoke (city) 06
486 Chimney Hl VA 06
487 Chinuapin Es VA 06
488 Cornwall F VA 06
489 Country Club Estates VA 06
490 Country Club Estates VA Salem (city) 06
491 Country Club Estates VA Salem (city) 06
492 Crimora Min VA 06
493 Crystal Sps VA 06
494 Davis VA Rockbridge 06
495 Dellinger VA 06
496 Duck Run VA Rockingham 06
497 Edgewood VA Amherst 06
498 Enderly Acres VA 06
499 Fairway For VA 06
500 Flacon Rdg VA 06
501 Flat Top Mountain VA Bedford 06
502 Forest Hill VA Lynchburg (city) 06
503 Forest Park VA Roanoke (city) 06
504 Fox Fire VA 06
505 Ft Valley Forest VA 06
506 Gr Hill Ter VA 06
507 Grandview VA Salem (city) 06
508 Grants Hollow VA Amherst 06
509 Harris Hollow VA Augusta 06
510 Henry Hill VA Rockbridge 06
511 Hidden Valley VA Roanoke 06
512 Hidden Valley VA Roanoke 06
513 Hidden Valley Estates VA 06
514 Holly Ridge VA Roanoke 06
515 Hone Quarry VA 06
516 Hunt Club VA 06
517 Hunting Hill VA 06
518 Knoll VA Amherst 06
519 La Bellevue VA Roanoke 06
520 Lake View VA Salem (city) 06
521 Lexington VA Lexington (city) 06
522 Little North VA 06
523 Lkot Mt Cmp VA 06
524 Lost Mtn VA 06
525 Marble Hills Estates VA 06
526 Massanutten VA 06
527 Massanutten View VA 06
528 Mcdowell VA 06
529 Meadowview Est. VA 06
530 Mitchell VA Salem (city) 06
531 Mountain View VA Roanoke (city) 06
532 Mountain View VA Roanoke (city) 06
533 Mountain View Subdivision VA 06
534 Mt View VA 06
535 Mt. Pleasant VA 06
536 Mtn Run VA 06
537 New Market VA Shenandoah 06
538 New Market Hts VA 06
539 Oakwood Est. VA 06
540 Oakwood Forest VA Alleghany 06
541 Orchard Hill VA 06
542 Poages Ml E VA 06
543 Rawley Springs VA Rockingham 06
544 Ridge Hollow VA Shenandoah 06
545 Riles Run VA Shenandoah 06
546 Rolling Hills VA Salem (city) 06
547 Rolling Hills VA Salem (city) 06
548 Rolling Wood VA 06
549 Round Hill VA Bath 06
550 S. Bowling Green VA 06
551 Salem Heights VA Salem (city) 06
552 Sandy Hook VA Shenandoah 06
553 Scenic Hills VA Roanoke 06
554 Senger Mtn VA 06
555 Seven Fountains VA Shenandoah 06
556 South Woods VA 06
557 Sparkling Springs VA Rockingham 06
558 Spotswood Estates VA 06
559 Spotwood North VA 06
560 Spring Hill Subdivision VA 06
561 Spring Hollow VA Shenandoah 06
562 Stepping Stone VA Botetourt 06
563 Summerfield VA Augusta 06
564 Suncrest Ht VA 06
565 Sunrise VA Bath 06
566 Sunset Village VA Salem (city) 06
567 Sunvalley (Upper) VA 06
568 Supin Lick VA 06
569 Turner Run VA Rockingham 06
570 Westover Hills VA Augusta 06
571 Westwood VA Roanoke (city) 06
572 Alsop VA Spotsylvania 07
573 Ashland VA Hanover 07
574 Battle Creek VA 07
575 Battle Creek Subdivision VA 07
576 Beattie Mill Rd VA 07
577 Belmont VA 07
578 Berry Hill VA Culpeper 07
579 Beulah Church Rd VA 07
580 Brandermill VA Chesterfield 07
581 Caledon Road VA 07
582 Cambdge Est VA 07
583 Canterbury VA Henrico 07
584 Chester Gap VA Rappahannock 07
585 Chickahominy Branch VA 07
586 Cold Harbor VA 07
587 Courthouse Mountain VA Madison 07
588 Deerfield VA Goochland 07
589 Deerfield VA Goochland 07
590 Deerfield Estates VA 07
591 Dorset Woods VA Henrico 07
592 Doswell Chapel Area VA 07
593 Egypt Bend VA 07
594 Fairwy Acre VA 07
595 Fawn Lake VA Spotsylvania 07
596 Flanigans Mill VA 07
597 Gains Mill Rd VA 07
598 Glenbrook Hills VA Henrico 07
599 Graves Mill VA Madison 07
600 Huntington Hgts VA 07
601 Indian Run VA Culpeper 07
602 Jenkins Hollow VA Rappahannock 07
603 Jennings Pond VA Spotsylvania 07
604 Jewell Hollow VA Page 07
605 Lake Arrowhead VA Page 07
606 Land Of Luray VA 07
607 Land Of Shenandoah VA 07
608 Laurel West VA Henrico 07
609 Lee Lake VA Spotsylvania 07
610 Livingston Farms VA 07
611 Livingston Heights VA 07
612 Livingston Village VA 07
613 Meadows Oc VA 07
614 Mechanicsville Cent. VA 07
615 Mechanicsville East VA 07
616 Mechanicsville Far W VA 07
617 Mechanicsville West VA 07
618 Mine Road VA 07
619 Mooreland VA Henrico 07
620 Mooreland Farms VA Henrico 07
621 Mooreland West VA 07
622 Mt. View VA 07
623 N. White Oak Lake VA 07
624 Nethers VA Madison 07
625 Newman VA 07
626 Ni River Landing VA 07
627 Oxford Dr VA 07
628 Parker VA Spotsylvania 07
629 Pine Knoll VA Hanover 07
630 Pole Green Rd VA 07
631 Post Oak VA Spotsylvania 07
632 Post Oak Road VA 07
633 Ragged Run VA Madison 07
634 Rapidan Retreat VA 07
635 Reva Heights VA 07
636 Roundhead Mt. VA 07
637 Rural Pt. Rd VA 07
638 Sandy Valley Rd VA 07
639 Shady Grove VA Henrico 07
640 Shen. Forest VA 07
641 Shen. River Lodge VA 07
642 Sinclair Manor VA Hanover 07
643 Smith Hill VA Orange 07
644 Smith Hill VA Orange 07
645 Snell VA Spotsylvania 07
646 Spotsylvania Cthse VA 07
647 Studley Farm Dev. VA 07
648 Syria Mountain Estates VA 07
649 The Forest VA Goochland 07
650 Weakley Hollow VA Madison 07
651 Westchester VA Chesterfield 07
652 Westham Rdge VA 07
653 Westwood Rd VA 07
654 Wilderness Camping VA 07
655 Woodward Hollow VA Page 07
656 Wright's Pond Area VA 07
657 Zeus Mills Estate VA 07
658 Barcroft VA Arlington 08
659 Berkshire VA Arlington 08
660 Clover VA Alexandria (city) 08
661 Country Club Over VA 08
662 Highlands VA Arlington 08
663 Highlands VA Arlington 08
664 Holmes Run VA Alexandria (city) 08
665 Huntington VA Fairfax 08
666 White Oaks VA Fairfax 08
667 Abbot Ac 1 VA 09
668 Abbot Ac 2 VA 09
669 Aps Knob VA Craig 09
670 Ashley Oaks VA 09
671 Bark Camp Trl. VA 09
672 Bassett Hit VA 09
673 Bear Creek VA Carroll 09
674 Bear Ridge VA Dickenson 09
675 Belarispring VA 09
676 Belmont VA 09
677 Berry Hollow VA Buchanan 09
678 Bertha Farms VA 09
679 Big Hill Acres VA 09
680 Breaks Int. Park VA 09
681 Camp VA Smyth 09
682 Cedar Run VA Wythe 09
683 Cherokee Hl VA 09
684 Claytor Lke VA 09
685 Country Club Estates VA 09
686 Currin VA 09
687 Daltons's VA 09
688 Draper Mt E VA 09
689 Echo Hills VA 09
690 Elk Ridge VA Smyth 09
691 Foster Falls Mt. VA 09
692 Gobblers Knob VA 09
693 Gunton Park VA Wythe 09
694 Hickory Hills VA 09
695 Highland Park VA Pulaski 09
696 Hightop Mountain VA Montgomery 09
697 Hill VA Scott 09
698 Hill Ridge VA Dickenson 09
699 Hunters Ridge VA 09
700 Ivy Creek VA Patrick 09
701 Kire VA Giles 09
702 Lakeside Forest VA 09
703 Laney Cemetery VA Scott 09
704 Laural Mtn VA 09
705 Laural Valley Est. VA 09
706 Laurel Mountain VA Washington 09
707 Laurel Rdg. VA 09
708 Laurel Ridge VA Montgomery 09
709 Laurel Wd VA 09
710 Lost Valley VA Russell 09
711 Lots Gap VA Wythe 09
712 Macedonia Church VA Smyth 09
713 Manual Subv. VA 09
714 Maple Springs VA 09
715 Mcdonald VA 09
716 Meadows Hollow VA 09
717 Mill Branch VA Wythe 09
718 Moccasin Gap VA Washington 09
719 Monkey Run VA Wythe 09
720 Mountain To VA 09
721 Mudlick VA 09
722 Muskrat VA 09
723 North Ridge VA Grayson 09
724 Oak Grove VA Carroll 09
725 Oak Grove VA Carroll 09
726 Oak Hill VA Grayson 09
727 Oak Hill VA Grayson 09
728 Oak Mannor VA 09
729 Old Farms VA 09
730 Pine Ridge VA Scott 09
731 Pine Ridge VA Scott 09
732 Potato Hill VA Lee 09
733 Potts Mtn A VA 09
734 Red Brush VA 09
735 River Bluff VA 09
736 River Bluffs VA 09
737 Rural Retreat VA Wythe 09
738 Sand Mtn. Est. VA 09
739 Sanville Est VA 09
740 Simmonsville VA Craig 09
741 Skyland Lakes VA Carroll 09
742 Sundance VA 09
743 Sundance West VA 09
744 Walnut Hill VA Lee 09
745 Walton VA Montgomery 09
746 Weber City VA Scott 09
747 Apple Mt. Lake VA 10
748 Aspen Hill Farm VA 10
749 Beau Ridge Estates VA 10
750 Belmont VA 10
751 Belmont VA 10
752 Blue Ridge Estates VA Clarke 10
753 Blue Ridge Mountain Est. VA 10
754 Breeden's VA 10
755 Buck Hill VA Prince William 10
756 Buck Mt. Est. VA 10
757 Calmes Neck VA Clarke 10
758 Carefree Acres VA 10
759 Castleman's VA 10
760 Catharpin VA Prince William 10
761 Catharpin Rd. Centr. VA 10
762 Catharpin Rd. W VA 10
763 Cedarville Hgts. VA 10
764 Cooktown VA Fairfax 10
765 Dungadin VA 10
766 Elmwood VA 10
767 Evergreen VA Fauquier 10
768 Fox Chase VA Loudoun 10
769 Fox Ridge VA Frederick 10
770 Front Royal VA Warren 10
771 Good VA 10
772 Good WV 10
773 Grand View Est. VA 10
774 Grandview Estates VA Warren 10
775 Green Hil Forest VA 10
776 High Knob VA Warren 10
777 Hill & Dl Ac VA 10
778 Lake Fr.Royal VA 10
779 Leigh Haven VA 10
780 Loch Linden VA Warren 10
781 Mccoy Subdivision VA 10
782 Meadow Brook VA Frederick 10
783 Millwood VA Clarke 10
784 Millwood VA Clarke 10
785 Mineral Springs VA Warren 10
786 Mineral Springs VA Warren 10
787 Mountain View Farm VA Warren 10
788 Mt. Falls Park VA 10
789 Old Mill Estates VA Fairfax 10
790 Page Valley Estates VA 10
791 Paris Heights VA Clarke 10
792 Point O' Woods VA 10
793 Point O'Woods VA 10
794 Potomac Hills VA Fairfax 10
795 River Oaks VA Fairfax 10
796 Royal View Est. VA 10
797 Royal View Estates VA 10
798 Salem Station Blvd VA 10
799 Shen. Farms VA 10
800 Shen. River Est. VA 10
801 Shen. River Lke. VA 10
802 Shen. Shores VA 10
803 Skyland Estates VA 10
804 Spring Hill VA 10
805 Thompson Hollow VA Warren 10
806 Tuscarora VA 10
807 Valley View VA Clarke 10
808 Valley View Farms VA 10
809 Waterford VA Loudoun 10
810 Algonquin Hills VA Prince William 11
811 Bradley Forest VA Prince William 11
812 Buckland VA Prince William 11
813 Cardinal Forest VA Fairfax 11
814 Cedar Knolls VA Prince William 11
815 Chevalle VA Prince William 11
816 Colonial Acres VA Prince William 11
817 Devonshire VA Prince William 11
818 Fair Estates VA Prince William 11
819 Gaila Woods VA Prince William 11
820 Garfield Estates VA Prince William 11
821 Heritage Woods VA Prince William 11
822 Homewood VA Fairfax 11
823 Hunters Grove Estates VA 11
824 Hunters Grove Estates VA Prince William 11
825 Independent Hill VA Prince William 11
826 Kimberly Knolls VA Prince William 11
827 King's Park VA 11
828 Knollwood Estates VA Prince William 11
829 Lake Jackson VA Prince William 11
830 Lakeridge Et VA 11
831 Lakeview Est. VA 11
832 Lakeview Estates VA 11
833 Lakeview Estates VA Prince William 11
834 Landview Estates VA Prince William 11
835 Limstrong VA Prince William 11
836 Lindau Woods VA Prince William 11
837 Meadowbrook VA Prince William 11
838 Montclair VA 11
839 Montclair VA 11
840 Neabsco Hills VA Prince William 11
841 Oak Ridge Estates VA Prince William 11
842 Oxfordshire VA Prince William 11
843 Parkwood VA 11
844 Pleasant Ridge VA Fairfax 11
845 Potomac Mills VA Prince William 11
846 Prestige Manor VA Prince William 11
847 River Bend Ests VA 11
848 Riverview Est. VA 11
849 Riverview Estates VA 11
850 Woodbine VA Prince William 11
851 Woodbine Forest VA 11
852 Woodbine Forest/Oaks Of Shenandoah VA 11
853 Woodbine Woods VA Prince William 11
854 Woodhaven VA Prince William 11
855 Woods Of Shenandoah VA 11
No Fires sign in Shenandoah National Park

broken pine tree

Links

pine planting at Hog Island Wildlife Management Area, north of Surry nuclear power plant
pine planting at Hog Island Wildlife Management Area, north of Surry nuclear power plant

References

1. US Forest Service, "Coarse-Scale Spatial Data for Wildland Fire and Fuel Management," www.fs.fed.us/fire/fuelman/index.htm (last checked May 7, 2004)
2. Virginia Department of Forestry, "Causes of Forest Fires," www.vdof.org/fire/fire-causes.shtml (last checked May 7, 2004)
3. Virginia Department of Forestry, "Wildfire Report Summary 2002" www.vdof.org/fire/va-fire-history.shtml (last checked May 7, 2004)
4. US Geological Survey, Wildfire Science Applications and Support, 2001 Communities at Risk Report wildire.geomac.gov/jspapps/jsp/nfpmaps/reportComm.jsp?districtid=51 (last checked May 7, 2004)


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