Electricity Transmission in Virginia

electricity generated at a few central power plants is distributed by a network of wires connecting to nearly every structure in Virginia
electricity generated at a few central power plants is distributed by a network of wires connecting to nearly every structure in Virginia

Today, almost all Virginia electricity is generated at a few centralized locations, typically large power plants fueled by coal, nuclear energy, natural gas, or falling water. The energy is then transmitted through a grid of wires across the state.

It is hard to store electricity in bulk other than in small batteries for cars and flashlights, but since the 1880's a transmission network of wires have connected nearly every house/business/factory to electricity generators fueled by water, coal, nuclear, and other sources. Touch a power pole on any city street, and you are connected through electricity transmission wires to almost every inhabited structure in North America.

the Peninsula Electric Light and Power Company provided electricity to Newport News in 1913
the Peninsula Electric Light and Power Company provided electricity to Newport News in 1913
Source: Newport News Public Library, Electric Light Plant (1913)

The location of mechanical energy at waterfalls shaped development of early manufacturing, so Virginia's first cities were located at the Fall Line. In contrast, electricity is portable. Today, factories, offices, houses, shopping centers, etc. can be located wherever a power line can reach. Electricity has enabled decentralized development.

the pattern of urban development in Virginia would be even more concentrated if transmission of electricity was limited to just several miles from the generating facility
the pattern of urban development in Virginia would be even more concentrated if transmission of electricity was limited to just several miles from the generating facility
Source: NASA Earth Observatory, Earth at Night 2012

The impact of electricity could be replicated by a later technology. The Internet enables employees to work from home; telecommuting is altering the transportation patterns for getting to and from work. Investors now shape their purchase of stocks based in part on predictions that the distribution of goods and services will be revamped. Competition will result in some industries growing, while others such as newspapers will be shrinking.

A century earlier, the same apocalyptic predictions could have been made about the impact of electricity on cities.

After 1900, manufacturing locations decentralized away from the urban core as electricity enabled factories to obtain power in rural areas with lower-cost labor. Finance, government, and retail operations replaced manufacturing; downtowns became white-collar centers.

At the same time, the automobile enabled workers to commute to jobs from much further distances, and to live far away from rail/trolley lines too. New suburbs initiated suburban sprawl. In Northern Virginia, the population boom from government workers filled up Alexandria, Arlington, and the Fairfax counties as Federal agencies swelled to deal with World War I, the Depression, World War II, and then the Cold War. After the Shirley Highway reached the Occoquan River, developers created Dale City, Montclair, Lake Ridge, and other subdivisions in Prince William County and workers commuted 30 miles to jobs in the urban core.

City of Radford has a 1-megawatt hydropower plant on the Little River
City of Radford has a 1-megawatt hydropower plant on the Little River, supplying roughly 1% of the city's demand

Getting electrical power to the homes of these decentralized residents required expanding the distribution system, as well as increasing the number of new power plants generating electricity. To minimize costs, the State Corporation Commission ended up regulating power companies, eliminating competition along with unsightly duplication of power poles.

Even with costs reduced through control of competition, investor-owned utilities could not justify the expense of spreading electricity into low-density rural areas. The Federal government financed delivery of power to many farms through the Rural Electrification Administration (REA), after the 1930 Census showed that only one tenth of American farms had access to electricity generated at facilities off the farm.1

The political arguments in favor of the rural electrification movement highlighted the benefits of Federal support. Tax dollars, coming primarily from urban areas, brought electricity to barns for electrical lights and milking machines, and to rural homes for refrigerators and washing machines. Of equal importance to the Federal government was the desire to stimulate economic development in the rural countryside, to support high-paying industrial jobs in factories located in the rural communities.

Industrial development transformed rural landscapes. The ability to bring electricity to wherever land prices were low has created conflicts with modern environmental concerns. The last remaining undisturbed habitats of threatened and endangered species are also potential sites for new factories and power plants.

the 765kV transmission lines in Virginia are in the southwestern part of the state
the 765kV transmission lines in Virginia are in the southwestern part of the state
Source: PJM, Virginia State Report (2017)

The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association is a member of a group called the National Endangered Species Act Reform Coalition. That coalition is still seeking to weaken environmental protections and increase the potential for more development in rural areas. The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association is located in the Ballston area of Arlington County. That is far from the rural areas served by the electrical cooperatives, but next to a Metrorail station that provides easy access to the US Congress and headquarters of key Federal agencies.2

The voltage of the electricity produced generators spinning at power plants is "stepped up" before being shipped out to customers as alternating current in 60-cycle phases, then "stepped down" at substations and ultimately transformers near our houses/stores/offices to become 220-volt or 110-volt circuits.

PJM is the Regional Transmission Operator and Independent System Operator that controls the dispatch and transmission of electricity across 13 states and the District of Columbia
PJM is the Regional Transmission Operator and Independent System Operator that controls the dispatch and transmission of electricity across 13 states and the District of Columbia
Source: PJM, PJM At a Glance

Electrons do not move down the wires in one continuous flow directly from generators to houses. Waves of alternating current shift directions 60 times/second, based on the spinning of the generators. As a result, electrons oscillate back and forth just a short distance - roughly 1mm - within the wires, energizing motors and light bulbs. A connection to ground on either side of the circuit ensure the electrons can move 1mm beyond the wire's ends.3

Until recently, the grid was exposed as overhead wires attached to poles and towers. That network is unsightly, so in many modern subdivisions the "last mile" of wires between substations and houses have been buried underground. The cost to bury the grid is relatively high, but buried wires are not disrupted by trees or ice storms. The cost to bury high-voltage transmission lines is dramatically higher, so they have been placed underground in only a few places, including 3.7 miles in Arlington County.

buried 230kv transmission line in Arlington
buried 230kv transmission line in Arlington
Source: Dominion, Radnor Heights 230 kV Underground Transmission Lines and Substation, Project Fact Sheet

The State Corporation Commission has ruled that a 230-kilovolt cable should be buried for 5 miles between Aquia Harbor and Garrisonville in Stafford County. An overhead line would cost $14.14 million, while the buried cable would cost $82.3 million. Burying the line was nearly 500% more expensive than an overhead line, but it protected the scenic view (and local home property values) for a 5-mile stretch. To cover those costs, all of Dominion Virginia Power's customers will pay an extra $0.10/month in their electrical bills to repay the extra $68 million required for line burial.4

buried 230kv transmission line between Aquia Harbor-Garrisonville
buried 230kv transmission line between Aquia Harbor-Garrisonville
Source: Dominion, Underground Transmission Lines at Dominion Virginia Power

Electricity is generated at central power plants, while the product is very decentralized. Transmission from the "factory" to the customer requires a distribution system, overhead wires that today connect nearly every occupied building in Virginia to each other.

The state road network is comparable to the electrical grid, with connections to service nearly every house. The character of the telecommunications network is similar to the elecricity network as well, though wires for cable TV did not extend into sparsely settled areas. Efforts to extend broadband internet service to every house may not require extending a wire to every house. Cell towers and satellite connections may be solutions without wires.

Water and sewer pipes stop at the edge of concentrated population centers; rural residents must depend on individual wells and septic systems for houses not connected to the water/sewer network of pipes.

Possum Point is key node for transmission in Prince William County, with a 500kV line crossing the Potomac River to Maryland
Possum Point is key node for transmission in Prince William County, with a 500kV line crossing the Potomac River to Maryland
Source: Homeland Infrastructure Foundation-Level Data (HIFLD), Electric Power Transmission Lines

Without the electricity transmission system, most factories would have to be located near power plants. Imagine a world where power could not be transmitted by wire... would houses also be located near power plants? Perhaps modern urban development would be concentrated around waterfalls, and in southwestern Virginia near the coal fields - or we would have installed solar power units on every rooftop, and diesel generators in every garage.

If electricity could be generated at the same location it was used, perhaps via solar panels on rooftops, then rural areas would not need to maintain long stretches of power lines for a small number of customers. In the future, shrinkage of the electrical transmission system might be the opposite of the shrinkage of the telecommunications system, with rural areas dropping connections first. The Amish in Giles County are a model. They choose to generate their electricity at their homes and stores, rather than connect to the grid.5

furnace burning coal to produce steam and electricity at Virginia Tech co-generation plant
furnace burning coal to produce steam and electricity at Virginia Tech co-generation plant

Imagine a world where a high percentage of electricity is generated by wind energy, methane from landfills, co-generation at factories, and solar panels rather than at existing coal-fired and nuclear power plants. Renewable energy sources could be widely distributed rather than centralized.

Renewable energy sources are not necessarily decentralized energy sources. Wind energy generation could be concentrated at a few windfarms on mountain ridges and offshore. To transmit electricity from those new sources to customers, the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association claims:6

large-scale expansion of renewables - enough to offset a big chunk of traditional baseload generation - begins with adding at least 30,000 miles of high-voltage transmission lines to wheel energy generated at remote wind farms and other facilities to urban load centers.

the Reusens hydropower facility near Lynchburg ships electricity by wire to customers
the Reusens hydropower facility near Lynchburg ships electricity by wire to customers

There are complex electrical engineering factors that affect the management of the grid of power lines that connect suppliers with customers. In bulk power transmission, the voltage and the phase transmitted from the "sources" to the "sinks" must be balanced. In the "good ol' days" for the last 80 years, utilities have been regulated so generation, transmission, distribution, and billing for electricity use was consolidated in one company for a specific geographic area. In return for a monopoly control on providing electricity and a commitment to service all customers, the State Corporation Commission regulated electricity rates so Virginia utilities earned a steady profit.

Dominion's electricity bills detail charges for local distribution separate from charges for long-distance transmission
Dominion's electricity bills detail charges for local distribution separate from charges for long-distance transmission
Source: Reddit, Electricity bill -- am I getting screwed?

In 1952, state regulation was not adequate to ensure the private Virginia Electric and Power Company (VEPCO, now known as Dominion) would transmit electricity that it did not generate. After the US Army Corps of Engineers built the John H. Kerr Dam on the Roanoke River, the Federal government wanted to transmit its low-cost, hydropower-generated electricity to the Air Force base at Langley.

VEPCO refused to allow the Federal government to use its transmission network. There was an intense public policy debate at the time over the role of the Federal government in the licensing of private dams on public rivers, and in the marketing of hydropower from public dams.

VEPCO hoped to force the government to sell its power directly to the private utility, which could then re-sell the low-cost electricity at a substantial profit. An Alabama utility had re-sold electricity produced at a Corps of Engineers dam on the Tennessee River for twice its purchase costs, and the Corps was unable to generate enough revenue to repay the initial Federal capital investment. The failure of the Corps to negotiate a better price for its power helped spur the replacement of that agency with the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA).

The US Congress responded to VEPCO's intransigence with a commitment to fund a new 146-mile long transmission system between the power plant and the military base. At that point, VEPCO negotiated a price for transmission, and allowed other "preference customers" (electric cooperatives and municipal utilities) to connect in order to obtain access the public power. Only in 1996 did the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) mandate, through The Open Access Transmission Tariff. that utilities must transmit power generated by others. In 2005 a regional "neutral" organization took responsibility for managing electrical transmission on Dominion Power's network.7

low-cost power generated at Kerr Dam is transmitted across southeastern Virginia to the Langley Air Force Base
low-cost power generated at Kerr Dam is transmitted across southeastern Virginia to the Langley Air Force Base
Source: Serving The Southeast: History Of The Southeastern Power Administration 1990-2010 (p.13)

in the 1950's, private utilities tried to block distribution (wheeling) of hydropower generated at the new Kerr Dam to competing utilities, including electric cooperatives
in the 1950's, private utilities tried to block distribution (wheeling) of hydropower generated at the new Kerr Dam to competing utilities, including electric cooperatives
Source: Serving The Southeast: History Of The Southeastern Power Administration 1990-2010 (p.13)

With deregulation of the utility industry, the number of suppliers, marketers, and purchasers of power is far greater and the accounting for power transmissions is far more complex. When a power plant goes off-line or a solar flare disrupts transmissions, the grid's ability to move power from source to sink at the correct voltage is affected. The PJM Interconnection (P=Pennsylvania J=New Jersey M=Maryland) reduces voltage 5% to cope with excessive load demands.8

through the PJM grid, Virginia can import or export electricity though high-voltage transmission lines
through the PJM grid, Virginia can import or export electricity though high-voltage transmission lines
Source: Homeland Infrastructure Foundation-Level Data (HIFLD), Electric Power Transmission Lines

demand for electricity in the sparsely-populated southwestern tip of Virginia is met using distribution lines with voltage lower than 69kV
demand for electricity in the sparsely-populated southwestern tip of Virginia is met using distribution lines with voltage lower than 69kV
Source: Homeland Infrastructure Foundation-Level Data (HIFLD), Electric Power Transmission Lines

Electricity delivery is not as straightforward as the delivery of mail by the Postal Service or packages by FedEx/UPS. The transmission lines (the wires on the tall towers crossing the countryside) transport electricity. As population grows and people use more electrical appliances in the home, demand for electricity is rising. New "electricity highways" are constructed by adding new wires to existing towers, or occasionally constructing a new set of towers. Such construction can be politically difficult; few people consider transmission lines to be esthetic, and some question the safety of living near them.

moving energy, from coal hopper cars to high-voltage transmission lines at Chesterfield power plant
moving energy, from coal hopper cars to high-voltage transmission lines at Chesterfield power plant

Virginia Power purchased the rights-of-way of the failing Washington and Old Dominion Railroad in the early 1960's, to acquire a corridor for a new transmission line to supply the growing Northern Virginia region. Only after some contentious discussions was the route also made into a bike trail for recreational use. American Electric Power (AEP) built a 765 kilovolt power line from its coal-fired power plant in Wyoming, West Virginia to Jacksons Ferry Station near Wytheville/ Pulaski, but required 13 years to obtain approval and build the connection.9

Virginia utilities buy bulk power via the largest interconnected, managed grid of transmission lines in the United States, PJM Interconnection (PJM Interconnection (P=Pennsylvania - J=New Jersey - M=Maryland)). A small section of the state, the Eastern Shore, is supplied directly by a PJM member (Delmarva Power & Light).

Electricity is bought and sold for firm delivery under long-term contracts and on a "spot" market to meet short-term demand. When Virginia Power acquires electricity from the New York Power Pool, the capacity to transmit the energy through Pennsylvania and Maryland transmission lines must be reserved along with the power itself. Since PJM Interconnection is a multi-state operation, the procedures and prices are affected by a Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) tariffs. Arrangements for delivery are handled in part through an online system, OASIS.

Virginia is second only to California in import of electricity, measured in million megawatthours (MWh)
Virginia is second only to California in import of electricity, measured in million megawatthours (MWh)
Source: Energy Information Administration, Today in Energy: California imports the most electricity from other states; Pennsylvania exports the most (April 4, 2019)

Virginia is included in two regions of the North American Electricity Reliability Council. Most of the state is associated with the SERC Reliability Corporation (SERC). The region served by American Electric Power (AEP), with most of its power plants in the Ohio River watershed, is associated with ReliabilityFirst.

Appalachian Electric Power (AEP) in the ReliabilityFirst district, while the rest of the state is associated with the SERC Reliability Corporation (colored blue)
Appalachian Electric Power (AEP) in the ReliabilityFirst district, while the rest of the state is associated with the SERC Reliability Corporation (colored blue)
Source: SERC Reliability Corporation, sub-regional boundaries map

Production of electricity is highly centralized. The economies of scale lead to large hydroelectric dams and coal-fired power plants and nuclear reactors, rather than numerous small ones. The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 ("PURPA") encouraged a shift to decentralized production of electricity (and steam). This was a side effect - primary emphasis of the legislation was to stimulate production from non-traditional, renewable sources. The ongoing deregulation of electricity is likely increase the number of electricity producers, spurring co-generation at many manufacturing facilities. From a geographical perspective, the current map of sites in Virginia creating electricity for sale is likely to have many more dots in the future.

places where electricity is generated for commercial use in Virginia
places where electricity is generated for commercial use in Virginia
Source: US Energy Information Administration, Profile Overview

Traditionally, it is wiser to put a few eggs in many different baskets rather all eggs in one basket. According to that approach, creation of more power plants in Virginia should increase our energy security. Initially, every Virginia manufacturing facility created its own independent power from wood or water. If a water wheel or dam broke for one grist mill, other mills could continue operating.

Urban centers started to create electricity in a similar fashion. When Richmond established the first hydroelectric plant to power street cars, or when Manassas created its own hydroelectric plant on Bull Run, the cities built stand-alone systems unconnected to any other sources of power. If ice clogged the intakes in January, Manassas customers froze in the dark for a few days - or relied upon their wood stoves and kerosene lamps. When these and other plants were connected by a grid of transmission lines, however, it became less likely that failure/sabotage at one large facility could blackout a significant region of Virginia.

transmission lines connect at substations in places like Cloverdale, north of Roanoke
transmission lines connect at substations in places like Cloverdale, north of Roanoke
Source: Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean, MidAtlantic Ocean Data Portal

Still, the major utilities rely upon just a few major generating sources to supply nearly 7 million Virginian customers. A handful of nuclear and coal plants supply a steady base load of power 24 hours/day, while more-flexible natural gas and hydro plants can generate peaks of power for the surges in demand on weekday mornings and early evenings. The small PURPA-stimulated facilities, such as the waste-to-energy plant (incinerator) at the Lorton landfill in Fairfax County, are less-stable suppliers of power compared to the large centralized plants such as the Clover coal-fired plant in Halifax County.

electricity generated offshore wwill be transmitted via cable to the onshore grid
electricity generated offshore wwill be transmitted via cable to the onshore grid
Source: US Department of Energy, Top 10 Things You Didn’t Know About Offshore Wind Energy (August 30, 2021)

The energy security provided through PURPA comes more from reducing the demand for imported oil than from adding more eggs to the basket. Adding up all the small generators, it would still be difficult to replace the megawatts of electricity generated at Surry 1 and 2. Even with the flexibility of the power grid, all Virginians have experienced temporary power failures.

There is even a threat of massive, nationwide failure of the electrical transmission system if the sun burps and emits a coronal mass ejection. A large solar eruption, comparable to the "Carrington event" in 1859, could induce excessive direct current in the transmission lines and burn out the transformers before circuit breakers trip. The igneous and metamorphic rocks in the Appalachian Mountains of Virginia would create the highest geoelectric amplitude hazard, in an intense magnetic storm, to the power grid system on the East Coast.10

Dominion's proposal to build new power lines from the Surry nuclear plant across the James River triggered opposition due to impacts on the historic river view
Dominion's proposal to build new power lines from the Surry nuclear plant across the James River triggered opposition due to impacts on the historic river view
Source: State Corporation Commission, Skiffles Creek Project Maps

Were it not for a sophisticated transmission system able to transfer power from suppliers are far away as Ontario and to adapt to drops/surges as plants change their production, we would not be able to assume the lights will come on when we throw the switch. The design of the Internet provides an interesting comparison.

The initial ARPANET design was intended to provide "survivability" for Department of Defense communications, even if major communications centers were obliterated by a nuclear attack. Instead on relying upon a few centralized switching centers, the Internet was designed to rely upon alternative routes in an interconnected grid of telecommunications networks. Of course, the costs of building transmission lines for electricity are far greater than the costs for transmission on Internet Protocol packets - and unsightly too. New power lines will not be constructed as fast as microwave towers are erected or fiber optic lines are buried underground, especially in Northern Virginia.

high voltage power lines transmit electricity via tall towers with wide rights-of-way
high voltage power lines transmit electricity via tall towers with wide rights-of-way

New energy sources are added now at the edge of the grid, at the margin rather than at the center of the distribution network. When developing a modern Local Area Network or Wide Area Network, new router/switch technology is installed first at the center, upgrading the key nodes of the network to achieve the greatest bang for the buck. As the technology ages, those routers/switches are displaced by "newer" hardware and moved to the periphery of the network. It is not uncommon for a high-end piece of hardware to migrate from a key transmission node in the core to an isolated status as an end-user desktop computer in a period of just months. Power plants, in contrast, have life cycles measured in decades.

One other comparison illustrates the geography of electricity in Virginia - the highway network throughout the state. It was designed initially to get crops from farms to market, and is now used to get manufactured goods to market (i.e., trucks on I-81 and the Woodrow Wilson Bridge) and employees from home to work. In hilly areas such as Buchanan County, a blockage of one road will dramatically interfere with local transportation. In other areas, such as Shenandoah County, there are many alternative roads that will allow drivers to reach their destination without waiting for the blockage to be cleared.

transmission lines of different voltages cross Virginia
transmission lines of different voltages cross Virginia
Source: Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean, MidAtlantic Ocean Data Portal

Public investment in mass transit increases dependence upon centralized systems, reducing flexibility to adapt to changing situations. Highway bridges and tunnels in particular are weak points, comparable to the interties connecting different electrical grids. Radio stations provide highway traffic reports "on the eights" or "every ten minutes," indicate the dependence on just a few routes for navigating the urban centers in Virginia.

In places such as Arlington County and Hampton, local roads provide multiple choices for local traffic, but the limited backbone of Interstate and arterial highways is highly vulnerable to disruption. One accident can make 150,000 people late to work. There are now Internet traffic reports. The day may come when electricity transmission reports are commonplace on the radio.

Transmission congestion has delayed the development of solar projects in Virginia and wind projects in other states. Analyses for new electricity generation facilities include calculationof estimated cost for expanding transmission lines to carry the extra load. In some cases, the cost of transmission capacity equalled the cost to construct the solar panels or wind tubines, projects were dropped after discovering the cost of transmission, and analyses for other projects needed to be updated to assess how congestion would be relieved or shifted.

By 2021, the number of new poposed projects exeeded the capacity of regional transmission organizations and independent system operators to approve proposed interconnections to the grid. Companies had enough proposed solar, wind, and battery projects to meet 80 percent of the total demand for electricity in the United States. The time for completing the reviews for interconnection projects grew from 18 months to over 40 months.

The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the industry sought to revise policies and weed out the interconnection burden for speculative projects. In 2022 PJM proposed freezing review of all new proposals until 2025 because:11

...it's difficult or impossible for PJM to include projects in their generation queue in their transmission models because they don't have certainty that those projects will be completed.

Bottom line: the story to watch re: Virginia electricity is not the easy-to-grasp changes in the locations of the generating plants, but instead the hard-to-see changes in the electrical distribution system. Deregulation of production, together with the inflexibility of the grid, will lead to public policy debates on ensuring fair access to the grid.

Electricity in Virginia

How Virginia Might Have Developed, If Thomas Edison's Direct Current Distribution System Had Been Adopted

Powerlines vs. the Scenic Vista at Jamestown

Dominion Energy has excess transmission capacity that varies in different areas, and no excess capacity in places without a line on the map
Dominion Energy has excess transmission capacity that varies in different areas, and no excess capacity in places without a line on the map
Source: Dominion Energy, Hosting Capacity Tool

high voltage transmission lines move electricity across Virginia
high voltage transmission lines move electricity across Virginia
Source: Department of Homeland Security, Electric Power Transmission Lines

the nuclear power plant at Surry is a key node in the Hampton Roads transmission grid
the nuclear power plant at Surry is a key node in the Hampton Roads transmission grid
Source: Dominion Virginia Power, Virginia Offshore Wind Integration Study (Figure C)

Links

Dominion Power has high-voltage (69kV and above) transmission lines and low-voltage distribution lines
Dominion Power has high-voltage (69kV and above) transmission lines and low-voltage distribution lines
Source: Dominion Energy, Dominion Energy Electric Transmission Overview

References

1. "Electrifying the Countryside," TVA: Electricity for All, New Deal Network, Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt Institute and the Institute for Learning Technologies at Teachers College/Columbia University, http://newdeal.feri.org/tva/cooke.htm; "Statement of John D. Battle, Executive Secretary of the National Coal Association," TVA: Electricity for All, http://newdeal.feri.org/tva/coal.htm (last checked September 26, 2013)
2. "NESARC 2013 Membership," National Endangered Species Act Reform Coalition, http://nesarc.org/members-and-staff#membership (last checked September 26, 2013)
3. "Electrons, Flow, and Conductors," Ask a Scientist!, Argonne National Laboratory, October 2, 2005, http://www.newton.dep.anl.gov/askasci/phy00/phy00989.htm (last checked September 2, 2013)
4. "Final Order, Case No. PUE-2006-00091," State Corporation Commission, April 8, 2008, http://docket.scc.state.va.us/CyberDocs/quickstart.asp?SHOW=view:78899&guest=Y&library=CASEWEBP_LIB&noframes (last checked August 26, 2008)
5. "Even for those 'off the grid,' fuel prices still affect profits," The Roanoke Times, August 03, 2008 www.roanoke.com/news/nrv/wb/171676 (last checked August 4, 2008)
6. "Renewables Reality Check," National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, July 2008, p.38, www.nreca.org/Documents/PressRoom/RenewableReality.pdf (last checked August 4, 2008)
7. Patricia Stallings, Serving The Southeast: History Of The Southeastern Power Administration 1990-2010, US Department of Energy, Southeastern Power Administration, 2012, p.12, p.121, p.125, http://www.sepa.doe.gov/Files/SEPAHist12.pdf (last checked September 2, 2013)
8. "Demand Response Sets New Record in PJM Interconnection," Transmission and Distribution Magazine, Aug. 13, 2007, http://tdworld.com/smart-energy-consumer/demand-response-sets-new-record-pjm-interconnection (last checked September 2, 2013)
9. "Mammoth 765-kV Project," Transmission and Distribution Magazine, February 1, 2006, http://tdworld.com/overhead-transmission/mammoth-765-kv-project (last checked September 2, 2013)
10. "Space storm alert: 90 seconds from catastrophe," New Scientist, 23 March 2009, http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20127001.300-space-storm-alert-90-seconds-from-catastrophe.html; Jeffrey J. Love, Greg M. Lucas, Paul A. Bedrosian, Anna Kelbert, "Extreme-Value Geoelectric Amplitude and Polarization Across the Northeast United States," Space Weather, Volume 17, Issue 3 (March 2019), https://doi.org/10.1029/2018SW002068 (last checked September 1, 2019)
11. "Here are ways to connect clean energy projects to the grid more quickly," Canary Media, May 31, 2022, https://www.canarymedia.com/articles/policy-regulation/here-are-ways-to-connect-clean-energy-projects-to-the-grid-more-quickly (last checked June 1, 2022)

four high-voltage transmission lines, ranging from 115kV to 500kV, were routed to cross Skyline Drive and Appalachian Trail together to reduce visual impacts
four high-voltage transmission lines, ranging from 115kV to 500kV, were routed to cross Skyline Drive and Appalachian Trail together to reduce visual impacts
Source: Homeland Infrastructure Foundation-Level Data (HIFLD), Electric Power Transmission Lines


Energy in Virginia
Virginia Places