pads for rocket launches are located on the southern tip of the barrier island, not at the Wallops Main Base or on the mainland
Source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), North Wallops Island Unmanned Aerial Systems Airstrip Environmental Assessment
Wallops Flight Facility, on Wallops Island in Accomack County near Chincoteague, was developed as a rocket testing site at the end of World War II to support the research at Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory (now Langley Research Center) in Hampton.
Atlantic Warning Areas defined by the US Navy make Wallops an attractive site for testing rockets now
Source: US Navy, Atlantic Test Ranges
Langley needed a field station to test guided missiles outside of wind tunnels, and initially considered Cape Lookout, North Carolina. That site was close to Langley and the Marine base at Cherry Point, and the undeveloped oceanfront offered the needed 50-mile test range free from interference so scientists could observe missiles from shore.
The Marines opposed sharing the area with Langley's research scientists and the barrier islands were difficult to reach, so Langley went with its second choice: Wallops Island. It was also near an existing military facility that could provide logistical support, the Chinoteague Naval Auxiliary Air Station (today's "Main Base" at Wallops Flight Facility). The barrier island, named after John Wallop (who had patented the land in 1672), could be accessed by a 2-mile causeway.
NASA's launch facility could have been located in North Carolina, if the Marines at Cherry Point had welcomed the scientists in 1945
Source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), (Figure 3)
Wallops offered undeveloped shoreline for tracking test flights of rockets
Source: NASA, (Figure 5)
There were four choices for a test range near the Chinoteague Naval Auxiliary Air Station. Chincoteage and Assateague islands were rejected because test flights would cross Chincoteague Inlet, which was also used by local boats. A site on the mainland near the air base would have required purchasing too much land or flown too close to the clubhouse of the Wallops Island Association hunt club, so Langley set up operations on the barrier island.
Langley set up initial facilities on the barrier island at Wallops, and modern space launch pads are located there now (separate from the main air base)
Source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Station and the Creation of an American Space Program
The hunt club was forced to sell, and temporary structures housed people and experiments for 18 months. Boats brought people and supplies from a dock on Assawaman Creek until 1958, when the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was created and a causeway was finally constructed.1
Initially, conditions at Wallops Island were primitive:2
multiple sites were examined before the launch facility was located on a barrier island where a seawall would be required to protect infrastructure
Source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), A New Dimension - Wallops Island Flight Test Range: The First Fifteen Years (Figure 4)
Wallops offers a wide range of launch trajectories, with Outer Banks of North Carolina the closest limit to the south
Source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Wallops Flight Facility
NASA tested the aerodynamics of different rockets at Wallops, including the escape system and heat shield for Mercury space flight capsules. NASA even launched a rhesus monkey on a suborbital flight in 1960, testing for Project Mercury flights that sent the first American astronauts into orbit.
launch of suborbital rocket from Wallops Island
Source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Rocket Report (Third Quarter, 2010)
Under NASA, Wallops focused on enabling low-cost aerospace-based science and technology research. Most launches were suborbital, including weather "sounding" rockets that release brightly-colored chemicals at high elevation to reveal the pattern of wind currents near the edge of space.
rockets launched from Wallops release chemicals to create clouds that reveal high-altitude wind currents, helping to refine computer models for predicting weather
Source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Earth Observatory, A Barrage of a Launch
NASA placed Goddard Space Flight Center in charge of Wallops Flight Facility in 1982. In 1995, the Virginia General Assembly (after proposals were developed by Old Dominion University's engineering program) created the Virginia Space Flight Center to expand Wallops into a commercial spaceport supporting orbital as well as suborbital launches, in hopes of stimulating economic development in Accomack County and throughout Virginia. The 1995 launch of a Conestoga rocket failed, ending the first attempt to establish commercial use at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility.3
Infrastructure at Wallops is sufficient now to launch satellites to the International Space Station over 200 miles above the earth, and even to reach the moon - starting with NASA's launch of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission in September, 2013 to study the lunar atmosphere and help determine if dust will affect future missions.
LADEE launch disturbed a local frog, briefly...
Source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, LADEE Frog Photobomb
The LADEE launch from Pad 0B was only the second NASA mission to the moon that was not launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida. For LADEE, Wallops used a Minotaur rocket with an upper stage to carry a satellite the size of a car into orbit around the moon. The Minotaur rocket, a converted Air Force MX Peacekeeper intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), was not powerful enough to put the satellite into a direct orbit to the moon. Instead, LADEE got a gravity assist by circling the earth three times before reaching lunar orbit.
Reusing the old ICBM's reduced the cost compared to using a new Atlas or Delta rocket. Strategic arms limitation treaties between the United States and Russia restrict the number of sites from which refurbished ICBM's can be launched to Vandenberg Air Force Base (California), Kodiak Launch Complex (Alaska), Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (Florida) and Wallops Flight Facility (Virginia).4
the first satellite launched from Wallops to the moon was the size of a car
Source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA Prepares for First Virginia Coast Launch to Moon
The Virginia Space Flight Center initially targeted the "smallsat" business (satellites in low-earth orbits for communications and remote-sensing), plus reusable launch vehicles for passenger and cargo transportation into space. It sought to become the launch site for VentureStar, a now-cancelled replacement for the space shuttle.5
In 2004, Virginia put two members from Maryland on the board of the Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority and renamed the launch site, converting the Virginia Space Flight Center into the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport (MARS). Wallops is located close to the border with Maryland, but partnering with Maryland was more than just a "we're neighbors" decision. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland manages the NASA operations at Wallops Island, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory has managed missions to Pluto - and the Maryland delegation has been influential in shaping funding and policy for NASA.
Maryland Senator Barbara Mikulski played such a key role that NASA's director of the Wallops Flight Facility called her the site's "patron saint," and the NASA's Administrator described her "as our own supernova." She supported Federal appropriations for a facility in Virginia, totalling $160 million between 2009-206, because operations at Wallops had regional impacts. Senator Mikulski's office calculated that it supported 1,525 jobs on the Eastern Shore, plus others at Goddard in Greenbelt, Maryland.6
Federal policy on privatizing portions of NASA (such as the LANDSAT imaging satellites) and stimulating commercial launch capacity has been erratic. Cancellation of the space shuttle increased opportunities for commercial space flights to supply the International Space Station. Orbital Sciences Corporation, based in Virginia near Dulles airport, has won nearly $2 billion in Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) contracts with NASA, and will launch Cygnus spacecraft on Antares (formerly called Taurus II) rockets from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport.7
Pad 0A at Wallops Island
Source: Orbital Sciences Corporation, Wallops Flight Facility
The two-stage Antares rocket is the largest planned for Wallops, where 16,000 launches had already occured by 2013. The state of Virginia built Pad 0A especially for the Antares to make eight supply missions to the International Space Station, and Virginia is paid $1.5 million for each launch. The Cygnus capsule on top of the Antares rocket is designed to carry a maximum of 14,000 pounds of cargo - but not astronauts - on each flight to the International Space Station, 260 miles above the earth.
In April, 2013, Orbital Sciences Corporation successfully launched a test flight of the Antares rocket. That was followed by a launch in September 2013 of a "demonstration mission" that successfully carried 1,300 pounds of cargo to the space station, then a January 2014 launch with a full commercial load of 2,780 pounds - including Christmas gifts, which arrived late after the launch was delayed by repairs on the International Space Station, then by cold weather at Wallops, and finally by unusual space weather (high levels of radiation).
first test flight of Antares rocket from Wallops, April 2013
Source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Successful Launch for Antares
Six months later, Orbital launched another Antares rocket from Wallops with another Cygnus capsule carrying 3,669 pounds up to the International Space Station. The launches established a new role for the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport as an on-ramp to support humans flying in orbit. Only two spaceports in the United States (including Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, used by Orbital's competitor SpaceX) send supply missions to the space station.8
However, the third Antares launch from Wallops on October 28, 2014 was a catastrophic failure. The rocket was destroyed six seconds after liftoff when just above the pad, creating a massive explosion. Orbital responded by contracting with other companies launch its resupply missions to the International Space Station in 2015, and not returning to Dulles until 2016.
launch failure at Pad 0A on October 28, 2014, damaged the Transporter Erector Launcher that Virginia had re-purchased
Source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA Statement Regarding Oct. 28 Orbital Sciences Corp. Launch Failure and
NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility Completes Initial Assessment after Orbital Launch Mishap
Virginia used $100 million in bond funding to finance construction of the new $150 million spaceport at Wallops - but still needed additional funding from Orbital to cover cost overruns during pad construction. The company paid Virginia $42 million in 2010 to buy hardware at the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport, and the state used the funding to upgrade Pad0A to allow launches of liquid-fueled rockets (rather than the solid-fueled rockets used at the other pad). The payment was essentially a loan; Virginia committed to re-purchase the hardware later after the General Assembly had provided new funding.
After repurchasing over $25 million of equipment, in 2012 Virginia's Secretary of Transportation refused to repurchase the Transporter Erector Launcher used to move Antares rockets to the launch pad. Virginia argued the $16 million Transporter Erector Launcher could only be used by Orbital's Antares rocket, and initially refused to accept a mediator's decision that supported Orbital's claim.
The company finally sued the Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority in 2013. The two litigants settled the suit out of court in 2014, and Virginia bought back the Transporter Erector Launcher at an undisclosed price. The October, 2014 explosion of the Antares rocket during launch damaged the Transporter Erector Launcher and other components at the pad, including the lightning towers that surrounded it.
the October 28, 2014 launch failure was dramatic - but the Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority repaired the pad and stayed in the space launch business
Source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Orbital ATK Antares Launch
Orbital's insurance policy was not expected to cover the estimated $20 million in damage, and Virginia had self-insured Pad0A. The state government was in a severe budget crunch when the explosion damaged the launch pad, and there was no obvious source of funding for repairs. The future of commercial space flight at Wallops was placed into question.
The US Congress came to the rescue at the end of 2014, by including $20 million for repairs in the 2015 budget. It passed when Sen. Barbara Mikulkski of Maryland was serving as chair of the Senate Appropriations Committee, and Sen. Tim Kaine of Virginia was on the Budget Committee. The repair of the facility and the restoration of Orbital's capacity to supply the International Space Station was justified in part when SpaceX had its rocket fail eight months after the Wallops explosion.9
the Transporter Erector Launcher transports Antares rockets from the assembly building to the pad
Source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), UPDATE: Antares Launch Scheduled Jan. 8
the Transporter Erector Launcher also places the rocket in a vertical position on Pad 0A
Source: Orbital Sciences Corporation, ISS Commercial Resupply Services Mission (Orb-2) Image Gallery
Competition for the commercial spaceflight business is intense. In 2013, the Federal Aviation Administration had eight licensed Launch Site Operators, including one in Oklahoma. New Mexico has funded construction of the "Spaceport America" near the White Sands Missile Range, committing $200 million in state funding to attract companies that intend to provide private-sector launches for passengers as well as cargo. Virgin Galactic will launch its commercial space tourism flights from New Mexico.10
location of licensed spaceports in 2012 (NOTE: California Spaceport is now defunct)
Source: Federal Aviation Administration
Plans for the California Spaceport, with a commercial launch site next to Vandenberg Air Force Base, ended when the California Space Authority dissolved in 2011 after experiencing funding shortfalls during the recession and tight environmental constraints. However, California still has the very active Mohave Air and Space Port, where the XCOR Lynx capsule is being developed as a "space Corvette" to carry two people into space.
In addition, SpaceX uses Heavy–Space Launch Complex 4 East at Vandenberg Air Force Base. SpaceX plans for its Falcon Heavy rocket launches from Vandenberg to compete with the dominant NASA and military contractors, Lockheed Martin and Boeing, which launch Atlas 5 and Delta 4 rockets from Cape Canaveral in Florida. Vandenberg is used for satellites that orbit over the poles for earth observation and communications, but not for missions that place satellites in orbit over the equator or for missions to the International Space Station.11
Florida has created a Space Florida program to maintain that state's primacy. North of Cape Canaveral in Jacksonville, Space Florida is developing Cecil Spaceport at an old military airport closed through the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) process. It plans to compete with the White Sands Missile Range for sub-orbital launches of tourists.
Antares rocket carrying cargo from Wallops Island to the International Space Station on July 13, 2014
Source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Island Access (July 2014)
NASA plans to continue to launch humans into space from the Kennedy Space Center, while commercial launches (including Space X resupply missions to the International Space Station) will continue from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) launch pads. SpaceX plans to use Cape Canaveral (and Vandenberg Air Force Base in California) to launch humans directly from US soil to the International Space Station.
After the explosion at the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport, Orbital merged in 2015 with another company (to become Orbital ATK) and replaced the first-stage engines made in Russia with a different model. While the pad on Wallops Island was being repaired, Orbital ATK used a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket to launch two resupply missions from Cape Canaveral to the International Space Station.
Orbital ATK returned to Wallops Island to launch an Antares rocket with a Cygnus capsule in October 2016, using the new Russian engines. The private company decided to use Cape Canaveral again for its April, 2017 mission. Company officials said the decision was based on NASA's schedule and the ability of the more-powerful Atlas V rocket to deliver over 600 more pounds of cargo, and the following six launches were expected to be at the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport in Virginia.
The decision highlighted that Space-X did not have exclusive rights to use Cape Canaveral, and private companies could choose between the two spaceports. Orbital ATK did return to Virginia to launch another Cygnus capsule on an Antares rocket in November 2017, soon after Northrop Grumman announced it would pay over $9 billion to acquire the company.
Orbital ATK launched an Antares rocket to the International Space Station from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport on November 12, 2017
Source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), NASA Space Station Cargo Launches Aboard Orbital ATK Mission
After the successful launch, a happy astronaut on the International Space Station tweeted "Pizza and ice cream on the way!"12
Source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Pizza Night on the Space Station!
There are two spaceports in Florida. Space Florida is competing to draw cargo business away from Wallops Island in Virginia, as noted in the 2013 Florida Spaceport System Plan:13
The Kodiak Launch Complex in Alaska also has a long tradition of launching satellites into orbit. In 2013, Virginia and Alaska signed a Memorandum of Agreement to partner with each other. The very different latitudes of the two spaceports helped to minimize competition between them. Kodiak focuses on launches into polar and high-inclination orbits, while the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport targets launches into equitorial (i.e., zero-inclination), low-inclination, and mid-inclination orbits.14
FAA's list of Active Launch Site Operator Licenses, 2013
Source: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Active Commercial Space Licenses
The Wallops Flight Facility started launching rockets in 1945, but during the race to the moon it was was surpassed by Kennedy Space Center. Virginia decided to make Wallops into a competitor and stimulate the economy on the Eastern Shore, as described by the Washington Post in 2011:15
A 2011 report to the Virginia Department of Transportation assessed the competition from Florida, New Mexico, California, and Alaska. It concluded that New Mexico was targeting a different market (space tourism), and:16
advantages and disadvantage of Wallops compared to other spaceports
Source: Competitive Analysis of Virginia’s Space Industry
The report also recommended that the Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority "become a much more robust organization." Proposals included loosening the dependence on Old Dominion University, and reducing the influence of Orbital Sciences Corporation on the board in order to attract competitors.
In 2011, state responsibility for the spaceport was shifted from Virginia's Secretary of Commerce and Trade to the Secretary of Transportation, in 2012 the membership on the Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority board was revised, and by 2014 the General Assembly had directed $16 million annually from transportation funds to operate the spaceport.17
In 2013, the US Navy and NASA finalized arrangements for the Wallops Flight Facility to serve as a site for E-2C Hawkeye, E-2D Advanced Hawkeye, and C-2A Greyhound (E-2/C-2) Field Carrier Landing Practice (FCLP) operations. The Navy had struggled since 2000 to find an alternative site to the Fentress Naval Auxiliary Landing Field in Chesapeake, seeking undeveloped areas where lighting on a landing strip could be configured to resemble a carrier isolated in a dark ocean. Lack of capacity at Fentress had forced some squadrons using the propeller-based Hawkeyes and Greyhounds to practice in Jacksonville, Florida. To minimize expense, and to keep air squadrons near the carriers where the pilots would serve, the Navy determined it needed a "local" field, and:18
Wallops Flight Facility is close enough to Norfolk to serve as an Outer Landing Field for Navy pilots to practice carrier landings
Source: US Navy, Final Environmental Assessment, E-2/C-2 Field Carrier Landing Practice Operations at Emporia-Greensville Regional Airport, Greensville County, Virginia, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Wallops Flight Facility, Accomack County, Virginia (Figure 1-1)
Landowners in Southampton, Surry, and Sussex counties (plus Gates and Camden counties in North Carolina) strongly objected to locations proposed for a new Outlying Landing Field that might involve jet landings, blocking efforts to construct an alternative to Fentress. Virginia Beach and state officials feared that failure to find a new training facility, without distracting lights from suburban houses and retail store parking lots/signage, would impact the Navy's plans to base the new F-35C Navy Joint Strike Fighter at Oceana.
The Virginia Department of Aviation determined that airports in the cities of Richmond, Newport News, Norfolk, and Chesapeake, plus other airports in the counties of Chesterfield, Hanover and Accomack (Wallops), would be suitable for use by the propeller-based Hawkeye and Greyhound planes. Those airports could serve as a separate facility for practice by the propeller-based planes, when the carrier jets were using Fentress. The state recommended to the Navy the Franklin Municipal Airport, an airport built originally by the military in World War II.19
The city initially supported the plan, anticipating that $1 million/year rent from the Navy would help to replace the economic hole created when International Paper closed its Franklin mill. However, the Board of Supervisors in Isle of Wight county and ultimately the Franklin City Council both opposed the plan after citizens objected to the noise.20
The Navy then centered its eforts on Emporia-Greensville Regional Airport, in Greensville County. However, a soon-to-retire Navy pilot complained publicly about the failure to consider Wallops Flight Facility, and asked the Inspector Geeral to investigate the site selction process. The Emporia runway was long enough for touch-and-go landings, but too short to allow planes to land so pilots could rotate in and out. The Navy whistleblower claimed the operational efficiencies at Wallops, with a longer airstrip, would total $17 million more over a decade.21
NASA got $1.9 million/year from the Navy for use of the airfield for up to 6 months/year. The economic boost to Accomack County came from the 120 Navy personnel who may end up living temporarily in the area for 15 weeks, providing a temporary boost of population and stimulating demand for some local services and retail. The Navy already has a small Surface Combat Systems Center contingent at Wallops.22
Wallops Flight Facility and highway bridge to Chincoteague Island (the airfield is on the mainland, while launch pads are on Wallops Island itself)
Source: US Department of Agriculture, National Agriculture Imagery Program
Wallops Flight Facility could also become one of six testing centers for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, as those aircraft are commercialized for civilian activities within the United States. NASA has already used Wallops for flying Global Hawk drones above hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean, for the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel program research into how storms form and move. Pilots were based in both California and at Wallops, operating in shifts to control the aircraft remotely ("fly-by-mouse").
The state of Virginia spent $3.5 million and built a 3,500-foot runway for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. That put the site into the top three considered by the US Navy in 2016 for basing the MQ-4C Triton drones designed for reconnaissance missions. Getting the US Navy to base those drones at Wallops would create 400 full-time jobs in Accomack County, and add 500 new family members as well:23
planned development at Wallops Research Park
Source: Master Plan, Wallops Research Park
Local officials recognize the potential to increase tourism by highlighting operations at Wallops. For the September, 2013 LADEE launch to the moon, the executive director of Chincoteague's Chamber of Commerce said:24
The local paper headlined an October, 2016 article about tourists coming to see the first launch of the Antares rocket after the 2014 explosion "NASA's Antares rocket creates sonic and tourism booms." Delays in the launch date pushed it past the traditional tourist season, and that delighted owners of hotels and vacation homes at Chincoteague. The additional personnel required to prepare for the launch also helped boost the local economy:25
jobs associated with the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport (MARS) will help local students stay in their community and become local employees
Much effort is targeted towards attracting new businesses to locate in a 200-acre industrial/office park adjacent to the runways on the mainland. Accomack County is a rural area, but implementation of the Eastern Shore Broadband Initiative allows the county to offer high-speed Internet access now... and Wallops Flight Facility offers unique access to space as well.
The General Assembly has exempted space-related businesses from taxes under Zero G Zero Tax Act of 2008, after the 2007 Spaceflight Liability and Immunity Act provided legal protection for companies that send people into space. The favorable business climate stimulated Orbital to choose Wallops over Kennedy Space Center, and may attract other businesses as well.26
The Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport finally recruited a second customer in 2017. It competed successfully against the other three spaceports in California, Florida and Alaska that were also licensed by the Federal Aviation administration for launching commercial payloads to orbit.
Vector Space Systems was a start-up, but was staffed with people who had experience in SpaceX and other space-related businesses. The new customer committed to three, and up to eight, launches. It planned to use a mobile launch platform to send payloads up to about 145 pounds into low-earth orbit.27
shoreline hardening at Wallops Island, to protect $1 billion of infrastructure from shoreline retreat averaging over 12 feet/year since 1857
Source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Shoreline Restoration and Infrastructure Protection Program
sounding rocket launched for atmospheric research at Wallops, September 2012
Source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Sounding Rockets Program Office
launch of LADEE to moon, September 2013
Source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), LADEE Launch
test version of Minotaur V launch vehicle at Wallops Flight Facility, in preparation for launch of LADEE to moon
(showing rock wall on left to protect rocket pad from storm surges)
Source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wide-angle view of Minotaur V at NASA Wallops
the recycled ICBM components in the Minotaur that launched LADEE to moon were designed originally
to carry 10 multiple nuclear warheads, and to allow reloading the silo for a second strike
Source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), LADEE's Minotaur V Rocket
1. Joseph Adams Shortal, A New Dimension - Wallops Island Flight Test Range: The First Fifteen Years, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Reference Publication 1028, December 1978, pp.23-25, pp.31-32, http://www.scribd.com/doc/46472842/A-New-Dimension-Wallops-Island-Flight-Test-Range-the-First-Fifteen-Years (last checked September 10, 2013)
2. Harold D. Wallace Jr., Wallops Station and the Creation of an American Space Program, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) History Office SP-4311, 1997 (last checked September 10, 2013)
3. William Thompson, "The Rockets Next Door," Washingtonian Magazine, September 1, 2007, http://www.washingtonian.com/articles/people/the-rockets-next-door/; "Wallops Island," Encyclopedia Astronautica, http://www.astronautix.com/sites/walsland.htm; "Rocket explodes above Wallops Malfunction ends first commercial flight from NASA center," Baltimore Sun, October 24, 1995, http://articles.baltimoresun.com/1995-10-24/news/1995297106_1_rocket-eer-spacecraft (last checked October 30, 2014)
4. "NASA Prepares for First Virginia Coast Launch to Moon," National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), August 22, 2013, http://www.nasa.gov/content/nasa-prepares-for-first-virginia-coast-launch-to-moon/#.Uhevez90k3s; "NASA aiming for moon again, this time from Va.," Richmond Times-Dispatch, September 6, 2013, http://www.timesdispatch.com/news/state-regional/nasa-aiming-for-moon-again-this-time-from-va/article_a5ab6d6d-cd61-5fe9-90f7-709ad774afaa.html; "Lunar explorer launched from Va. has a problem," Richmond Times-Dispatch, September 8, 2013, http://www.timesdispatch.com/news/state-regional/lunar-explorer-launched-from-va-has-a-problem/article_f3e0c3c7-eea7-5c66-aea6-846d2e94b51c.html (last checked September 8, 2013)
5. "Virginia Space Flight Center (VSFC) wants to make space launches as routine as air travel," Space.com, August 21, 2000, http://www.space.com/businesstechnology/spaceport_virginia_000818.html (last checked October 30, 2010)
6. "Barbara Mikulski at Wallops: 'May the force be with us'," Eastern Shore News, May 3, 2016, http://www.delmarvanow.com/story/news/2016/05/03/barbara-mikulski-wallops-may-force-us/83880954/ (last checked May 4, 2016)
7. "Commercial Partners Are Making Progress, but Face Aggressive Schedules to Demonstrate Critical Space Station Cargo Transport Capabilities," Government Accountability Office Report GAO-09-618, June 2009, http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d09618.pdf (last checked October 3, 2012)
8. "New Private Rocket Cleared for Critical Launch Test Wednesday," Space.com, April 16, 2013, http://www.space.com/20699-private-antares-rocket-launch-test.html; "Cygnus on Deck after Successful Antares Debut," SpaceNews, April 24, 2013, http://www.spacenews.com/article/launch-report/35030cygnus-on-deck-after-successful-antares-debut; "NASA Partner Orbital Sciences Launches Demonstration Mission to Space Station," National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) News Release 13-284, September 18, 2013, http://www.nasa.gov/press/2013/september/nasa-partner-orbital-sciences-launches-demonstration-mission-to-space-station/#.Ujnhpj-E4e0; "Cargo ship with gifts, ants blasts off from Wallops," The Virginian-Pilot, January 10, 2014, http://hamptonroads.com/2014/01/cargo-ship-gifts-ants-blasts-wallops; "Cargo ship launched today from Wallops Island," The Virginian-Pilot, July 14, 2014, http://hamptonroads.com/2014/07/cargo-ship-launched-today-wallops-island; "ISS Commercial Resupply Services Mission (Orb-2)," Orbital, https://www.orbital.com/NewsInfo/MissionUpdates/Orb-2/ (last checked July 14, 2014)
9. "Orbital Sues Virginia, Says State Owes It $16.5 Million," Space News, October 4, 2013, http://www.spacenews.com/article/launch-report/37558orbital-sues-virginia-says-state-owes-it-165-million; "Orbital, Va. Settle Lawsuit Over Launch Pad Costs," Space News, February 21, 2014, http://www.spacenews.com/article/launch-report/39585orbital-va-settle-lawsuit-over-launch-pad-costs; "State sorting out potential liability in space launch explosion," Richmond Times-Dispatch, October 31, 2014, http://www.timesdispatch.com/news/state-regional/virginia-politics/state-sorting-out-potential-liability-in-space-launch-explosion/article_6e1a5a5a-9572-5c52-a321-6d22272d239d.html; "Virginia wants Orbital, NASA to help fund $20M repairs to launch pad," Daily Press (Newport News), November 18, 2014, http://www.dailypress.com/business/tidewater/dp-orbital-nasa-launch-pad-20141118-story.html; "After it was charred by a rocket explosion, NASA has a new launch pad," Washington Post, December 17, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-switch/wp/2015/12/17/after-it-was-charred-and-burned-by-a-rocket-explosion-nasa-has-a-new-launch-pad/ (last checked December 17, 2015)
10. "Overview Spaceport America," Virgin Atlantic, http://www.virgingalactic.com/overview/spaceport/; "Active Commercial Space Licenses," Federal Aviation Administration, http://www.faa.gov/data_research/commercial_space_data/current_licenses/ (last checked August 30, 2013)
11. Michael Belfiore, "XCOR Lynx: Don't Sleep on the Space Corvette," Popular Mechanics, August 13, 2012, http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/space/news/_xcor-lynx-dont-sleep-on-the-space-corvette-11644975; "SpaceX Breaks Ground on Launch Site for Falcon Heavy," SpaceX, July 13, 2011, http://www.spacex.com/press/2012/12/19/spacex-breaks-ground-launch-site-falcon-heavy; "SpaceX may turn to other launch pads when rocket flights resume," Spaceflight Now, September 6, 2016, http://spaceflightnow.com/2016/09/06/spacex-may-turn-to-other-launch-pads-when-rocket-flights-resume/ (last checked December 7, 2016)
12. "Virginia won't be the launch site for Orbital's next space station mission," Daily News, December 6, 2016, http://www.dailypress.com/news/science/dp-nws-antares-launch--florida-20161206-story.html; "Orbital ATK's Antares Rocket Returns to Flight with Gorgeous Night Cargo Launch," Space.com, October 17, 2016, https://www.space.com/34416-stunning-antares-rocket-return-to-flight-launch.html; "Northrop Grumman to acquire aerospace manufacturer Orbital," Washington Post, September 18, 2017, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-switch/wp/2017/09/18/northrop-grumman-to-buy-rocket-maker-orbital-atk/; "Frozen treats, other supplies rocketing toward space station from Va. eastern shore," WSET, November 12, 2017, http://wset.com/news/local/frozen-treats-other-supplies-rocketing-toward-space-station-from-va-eastern-shore (last checked November 23, 2017)
13. "Florida airport gets commercial spaceport license," Reuters, January 11, 2010, http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/01/11/us-space-business-idUSTRE60A5KE20100111; "Florida Spaceport System Plan," Space Florida, April 2013, p.21, http://www.spaceflorida.gov/docs/spaceport-ops/florida-spaceport-systems-plan-2013_final.pdf (last checked October 5, 2013)
14. "Governor McDonnell Announces New Partnership with Alaska to Strengthen Virginia’s Space Industry," Governor of Virginia news release, August 29, 2013, http://www.governor.virginia.gov/News/viewRelease.cfm?id=1962; "Memorandum of Understanding for Spaceport Operations Between the Commonwealth of Virginia and the State of Alaska," July/August 2013, http://www.governor.virginia.gov/utility/docs/Signed_VA_AK_MOU.pdf (last checked August 30, 2013)
15. "Virginia aims to claim the next Space Coast," Washington Post, July 9, 2011, http://www.washingtonpost.com/local/virginia-aims-to-claim-the-next-space-coast/2011/07/08/gIQASOS35H_story.html (last checked September 28, 2011)
16. "Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority: Governance, Organization and Competitive Landscape Review," KPMG, p. 53 and p.58, November 7, 2011, http://www.transportation.virginia.gov/docs/vcsfa_report.pdf (last checked November 7, 2011)
17. "Report recommends major changes at space authority," Hampton Roads Business Journal, December 16, 2011, http://insidebiz.com/node/191081; "Virginia to Provide $7.5 Million to Revamped Commercial Space Authority," Parabolic Arc, March 12, 2012, http://www.parabolicarc.com/2012/03/12/viriginia-to-provide-7-5-million-to-revamped-commercial-space-authority/; "State sorting out potential liability in space launch explosion," Richmond Times-Dispatch, October 31, 2014, http://www.timesdispatch.com/news/state-regional/virginia-politics/state-sorting-out-potential-liability-in-space-launch-explosion/article_6e1a5a5a-9572-5c52-a321-6d22272d239d.html (last checked November 2, 2014)
18. "Final Environmental Assessment, E-2/C-2 Field Carrier Landing Practice Operations at Emporia-Greensville Regional Airport, Greensville County, Virginia, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Wallops Flight Facility, Accomack County, Virginia," Department of the Navy, January 2013, p.v, http://sites.wff.nasa.gov/code250/docs/FCLP/Main_Report_Final_EA_E2C2_FCLP_Operations.pdf (last checked May 2, 2013)
19. "Airport interested in touch-and-go Navy landings," TidewaterNews.com, April 30, 2010, http://www.tidewaternews.com/2010/04/30/airport-interested-in-touch-and-go-navy-landings/ (last checked May 2, 2013)
20. "Navy eyes Franklin airport for practice landing field," The Virginian-Pilot, October 3, 2010, http://hamptonroads.com/2010/10/navy-eyes-franklin-airport-practice-landing-field; "Residents up in air over Navy’s plan for practice landings," The Virginian-Pilot, January 6, 2011, http://hamptonroads.com/2011/01/residents-air-over-navy%E2%80%99s-plan-practice-landings; "Franklin stops airport talks with Navy," WAVY-TV, February 15, 2011, http://www.wavy.com/dpp/military/Franklin-stops-airport-talks-with-Navy (last checked May 2, 2013)
21. "Using Wallops for training may cost less, inspector says," The Virginian-Pilot, October 27, 2011, http://hamptonroads.com/2011/10/using-wallops-training-may-cost-less-inspector-says (last checked May 2, 2013)
22. "Navy readies Wallops site for landing practice," The Virginian-Pilot, May 2, 2013, http://hamptonroads.com/2013/05/navy-readies-wallops-site-landing-practice; "NASA, Navy sign agreement on carrier landings," Richmond Times-Dispatch, May 3, 2013, http://www.timesdispatch.com/news/state-regional/nasa-navy-sign-agreement-on-carrier-landings/article_712582f4-4de9-5e4c-9b14-f016711a18f8.html (last checked May 3, 2012)
23. "Drones help keep an eye on storms," Newport News Daily Press, September 20, 2012, http://www.dailypress.com/news/weather/stormguide/dp-nws-hurricane-plane-20120920,0,987789.story; "Navy may use Wallops Island as home base for new surveillance drones," The Virginian-Pilot, April 13, 2016, http://pilotonline.com/news/military/local/navy-may-use-wallops-island-as-home-base-for-new/article_6dd2e63b-3009-5115-9fef-c29f2a002b24.html; "Navy: Basing drones on Eastern Shore or Florida would have no significant environmental impacts," The Virginian-Pilot, August 31, 2016, http://pilotonline.com/news/military/local/navy-basing-drones-on-eastern-shore-or-florida-would-have/article_eb89d199-63a5-5f35-9f88-b42fcd066fc9.html (last checked August 31, 2016)
24. "Launch may start something big on Eastern Shore," The Virginian-Pilot, September 1, 2013, http://hamptonroads.com/2013/08/launch-may-start-something-big-eastern-shore (last checked September 2, 2013)
25. "NASA's Antares rocket creates sonic and tourism booms," Eastern Shore News, October 10, 2016, http://www.delmarvanow.com/story/news/local/virginia/2016/10/07/nasa-wallops-antares-rocket-business/91675752/ (last checked October 10, 2016)
26. "Competitive Analysis of Virginia’s Space Industry," Virginia Department of Transportation, December 2011, http://www.transportation.virginia.gov/docs/SpaceCompAnalysis.pdf (last checked October 3, 2012)
27. "Virginia spaceport signs another customer for orbital launches," Daily Press, October 20, 2017, http://www.dailypress.com/news/science/dp-nws-spaceport-vector-20171020-story.html; "Former SpaceX exec to launch rockets into space from Wallops Island," The Virginian-Pilot, October 19, 2017, https://pilotonline.com/news/local/science/technology/former-spacex-exec-to-launch-rockets-into-space-from-wallops/article_713e142c-4e79-5878-9363-520cbc8faf66.html (last checked October 21, 2017)
piping plover nesting habitat at Wallops Flight Facility
Source: United States Air Force, Final Environmental Assessment for the Orbital/Sub-Orbital Program (Figure 3-6)
July, 2014 launch of resupply mission from Wallops to International Space Station
Source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Antares Rocket Launches Cargo to Space Station
the Cygnus capsule launched from Wallops delivered 3,669 pounds of cargo to the International Space Station on July 16, 2014
Source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Island Access (July 2014)
Antares rocket prior to successful launch in September 2013 to carry cargo to International Space Station (ISS), 260 miles above earth
Source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Antares Ready for Launch