A dozen years after the 1632 peace agreement, Opechancanough orchestrated another coordinated assault that was launched on April 18, 1644. The 1644 attack killed more colonists than the 1622 attack, but because the English population had grown so much the percentage killed was far less than in 1622.
The wall built on the Peninsula in 1634 had been effective in excluding Native Americans from the Peninsula for a decade, and the 1644 attack did not threaten Jamestown. Instead, Opechancanough's military success was limited to outlying plantations on the frontier or edge of settlement.
The 1644 attack also failed to force the colonists to change their expansionist behavior. Once again the English retaliated, and over the next two years destroyed the resources controlled by the paramount chief. In 1646, Opechancanough was captured and soon murdered while in captivity.
The remnants of Opechancanough's paramount chiefdom and the English colonists agreed to a peace in 1646. The treaty signed by Chief Necotowance, who replaced Opechancanough, restricted the Native Americans to the north side of the York River.1