the first Virginian, when entering the state about 15,000-20,000 years ago, may have followed a river upstream before crossing the future border
Source: National Atlas
No one knows who was the first person to set foot into what is now "Virginia," or when they got here.
We do know that the first Virginian was not a European who arrived in the 1500's. The Spaniards and English who attempted to colonize Virginia were late-comers. Virginia Dare, born in 1587 at the new English settlement on Roanoke Island, was not the first girl born in Virginia.
if the first Virginian walked up the Cumberland River, they may have passed through the Cumberland Gap to enter what is now Virginia
Source: Wikipedia, Cumberland River
The first Virginian had no concept they were crossing the boundaries of future political jurisdictions to arrive in Virginia perhaps 15,000-20,000 years ago. There was no grand entrance, and certainly no "Welcome to Virginia" sign. There was just one small step to cross a line that would be not be drawn until English kings made specific grants of land in 1632 (Maryland), 1663 (North Carolina), and 1681 (Pennsylvania/Delaware), or the US Congress defined boundaries of new states in 1792 (Kentucky), 1796 (Tennessee), and 1863 (West Virginia).
Paleo-Indian hunters or foraging bands might have entered the state from the northwest, traveling eastward along the glacier's melting edge until crossing the Eastern Continental Divide to enter Virginia via the headwaters of the Potomac River.
The first humans to enter Virginia could have followed the large mammals near the edge of the retreating glaciers. Those humans could have walked upstream along the the New River, which was a shortened version of the Teays River that had carved a channel that lasted despite the rise of the Appalachian Plateau.
That river's path to the northwest had been truncated 18,000 years ago, when the ice sheet pushed south to its furthest extent and the Ohio River developed from meltwater at the edge. The southern remnant of the ancient path of the Teays, ironically called the New River now, provided a path to enter Virginia at the edge of modern-day Giles County.
various paths the first human(s) may have taken to enter Virginia
Map source: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Global Land One-km Base Elevation Project (GLOBE) database, Conterminous 48 USA states
Perhaps the first group to arrive followed a different tributary of the Ohio River. If they had walked along what today is called the Tennessee River, they would have entered Virginia's southern edge via the Powell, Clinch, or Holston rivers. If they chose the Cumberland River, the crossing could have been west-to-east through the Cumberland Gap.
A hunting trip 15,000-20,000 years ago up the modern Big Sandy River could have led to a border crossing via the Russell Fork into Dickenson County at Breaks Interstate Park, via the Levisa Fork into Buchanan County, or via the Tug Fork and then Dry Fork into Tazewell County.
if the first Virginian walked up the Big Sandy River, they may have crossed the Appalachian Plateau 15,000-20,000 years ago to enter what is now Southwestern Virginia
Source: Wikipedia, Big Sandy River (Ohio River)
It is possible that the first humans to enter Virginia entered from the south, after moving from the Bering Land Bridge down the Pacific Ocean coast to Mexico and then crossing east to follow the Gulf of Mexico shoreline. Archeological evidence from Florida documents an ancient meal from a mammoth completed 14,550 years ago, a thousand or so years before the Clovis culture emerged.1
A group hunting and gathering food could have explored north from Florida, following the coastline. If so, they walked along the Coastal Plain into what today is the Outer Continental Shelf 30-40 miles off Virginia Beach. Sea levels were about 350 feet lower; the eastern edge of Virginia at that time is now close to the edge of the Continental Slope.
if the first Virginians followed the coastline north 15,000 years ago, then their campsites are 30-40 miles offshore and below 400' or so of water now
Source: Google Earth
The initial arrivals could have walked inland, moving through the forest and up what is now called the Chowan River before branching off to the north at the Nottoway or Meherrin rivers. That would match the location of the oldest documented site of Paleo-Indians within the modern boundaries of thestate.
The oldest place known to have been occupied by prehistoric Virginians is the Cactus Hill site in Sussex County. Points, charcoal, stones and bone fragments discovered at Cactus Hill, a Late Pleistocene sand dune next to the Nottoway River, indicate humans were living there 18-20,000 years ago. The artifacts of "Blade People" may have been manufactured nearly 5,000 years before Clovis points were developed.2
If the first Virginians had traveled even further upstream in the Roanoke River watershed, they would have crossed a future border between North Carolina-Virginia into modern Brunswick or Mecklenburg counties. Perhaps a group headed out of the river valley towards the setting sun, but ran into the Blue Ridge. The mountains could have diverted a group up the Dan River into Halifax County. Others may have walked up up the Ararat River into Patrick County.
by walking over 350 miles upstream from the Atlantic Ocean via what is now called the Pee Dee River in South Carolina, the first group of Paleo-Indians could followed the Ararat River into Virginia 15,000-20,000 years ago
Source: US Geological Survey (USGS), National Atlas Streamer
One possibility: the first Virginians arrived as a family unit, traveling south along the Atlantic Ocean shoreline rather than following any river channel. A hunting band may have tired of trying to spear caribou or musk ox near the edge of the ice sheet, and ventured east until they reached the Atlantic Ocean.
If such a group had walked south along the shoreline, they would have crossed into modern Accomack County on the Eastern Shore. As an alternative scenario, maybe the first Virginians came from the south. They could have followed the ocean shoreline north through North Carolina into what today is Virginia Beach.
mammoth, with curved tusks vs. mastodon, with straighter tusks
Sources: Department of Energy
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, US Geological Survey
The ancestors of the first people to arrive in Virginia may have been part of a migrating group that crossed the Bering Land Bridge, then migrated across the entire Western Hemisphere. Genetic analysis of modern Native Americans indicates there were at least two additional waves of migration. The three major language groups in North America (First American, Eskimo–Aleut, and Na-Dene) may reflect migrations at different times.3
The immigrants reached Monte Verde at the southern tip of Chile by 12,500BCE (Before Common Era). Maybe the migrants raced south and east, after crossing the land bridge 15,000 years ago, and got to the tip of South America in just 2,000 years.
As an alternative, maybe the first hunting bands arrived in North America over 20,000 years ago, before the ice sheets at the Last Glacial Maximum closed off the corridor. That scenario provides 2,000 years for humans to walk to Cactus Hill, on the banks of the Nottoway River in Virginia's Sussex County. An earlier arrival date would provide 5,000 years for humans to walk to Meadowcroft Rockshelter, southwest of Pittsburgh.
We find few sites documenting the camps of those Paleo-Indian wanderers because population levels stayed very low. No location was occupied long before the band moved on:4
Maybe the first Virginian cane through Beringia and the West Coast, but there is an alternative point of view. According to the Solutrean hypothesis, the first Virginian could have arrived paddling a boat that crossed the Atlantic Ocean, hunting seals on the ice floes fringing the edge of the ice sheet that covered the North Atlantic:5
Alaska Bidarki or Skin Boat, ca. 1912
Source: National Park Service
On the other side of the North American continent, other paddlers from Siberia and Japan may have migrated across the Pacific Ocean at the edge of the ice before hunters walked across the Bering Land Bridge. The Solutrean hypothesis is that European paddlers came across the Atlantic Ocean, seeking marine mammals and fish, and arrived in Virginia before anyone who had crossed the Bering Land Bridge also crossed the continent to reach the East Coast.
The theory of Atlantic Ocean paddlers is based in part on how the Clovis style of point manufacturing resembles what was produced in the Loire River area in France, near the village of Solutré-Pouilly.
if the Solutrean hypothesis is true and if humans arrived only 13,000 years ago, then the yellow line might be where the very first immigrants set foot in Virginia
Source: Google Earth
If the first Virginian crossed the modern state boundary at the Atlantic Ocean coastline, they did so before the ice sheets retreated into Canada. The first Virginian did not see the barrier island at Assateague, or the "Green Sea" marsh between the Back Bay and the Dismal Swamp.
If humans first settled Virginia near the maximum extent of the Wisconsin glaciation, there was no Eastern Shore, no Chesapeake Bay, no Virginia Beach. The James and Susquehanna rivers still flowed an additional 40-50 miles east across the Coastal Plain before reaching the Atlantic Ocean.6
1. Jessi J. Halligan, Michael R. Waters, Angelina Perrotti, Ivy J. Owens, Joshua M. Feinberg, Mark D. Bourne, Brendan Fenerty, Barbara Winsborough, David Carlson, Daniel C. Fisher, Thomas W. Stafford Jr, James S. Dunbar, "Pre-Clovis occupation 14,550 years ago at the Page-Ladson site, Florida, and the peopling of the Americas," Science Advances, Volume 2 No. 5 (May 6, 2016), http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/2/5/e1600375.full (last checked May 14, 2016)
2. Daniel P. Wagner and Joseph M. McAvoy, "Pedoarchaeology of Cactus Hill, a Sandy Paleoindian Site in Southeastern Virginia, U.S.A," Geoarcheology, Volume 19, Issue 4 (April 2004), pp.297–322; James K. Feathersa, Edward J. Rhodes, Sebastien Huot, Joseph M. Mcavoy, "Luminescence dating of sand deposits related to late Pleistocene human occupation at the Cactus Hill Site, Virginia, USA," Quaternary Geochronology, Volume 1, Issue 3, (August 2006), Pages 167-187, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quageo.2006.05.011; Michael F. Johnson, "Cactus Hill Archaeological Site," Encyclopedia Virginia, Virginia Foundation for the Humanities, October 5, 2016, https://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Cactus_Hill_Archaeological_Site (last checked August 10, 2017)
3. David Reich et al., "Reconstructing Native American population history," Nature, July 11, 2012, http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v488/n7411/full/nature11258.html (last checked July 12, 2012)
4. Steven Mithen, After the Ice: a Global Human History, 20,000-5000BC, Harvard University Press, 2004, p.234, p.240-241
5. Darrin Lowery, "The Challenge of Conducting Prehistoric Underwater Archaeology," Notes on Virginia 2009-2010, Virginia Department of Historic Resources, Number 53 (2009-2010), p.50, http://www.dhr.virginia.gov/pdf_files/Notes_No.53.2009_sm.pdf (last checked June 22, 2012)
6. "The Geology of Virginia - Coastal Plain Province," College of William & Mary Department of Geology, http://web.wm.edu/geology/virginia/provinces/coastalplain/coastal_plain.html; Wayne L. Newell, Inga Clark, and Owen Bricker, "Distribution of Holocene Sediment in Chesapeake Bay as Interpreted from Submarine Geomorphology of the Submerged Landforms, Selected Core Holes, Bridge Borings and Seismic Profiles," US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004-1235, 2004, http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2004/1235/ (last checked September 2, 2010)