U-Boats Off the Virginia Coast

the narrow continental shelf off the Outer Banks allowed U-boats to hide in deep water during the day, then find ships closer to shore to attack at night
the narrow continental shelf off the Outer Banks allowed U-boats to hide in deep water during the day, then find ships closer to shore to attack at night
Source: ESRI, ArcGIS Online

Hampton Roads cemeteries have more than Americans buried in them. They also include Germans, U-boat casualties from World War Two, including 28 bodies from U-85. That German submarine was sunk off the Outer Banks by a US destroyer on April 14, 1942. The casualties were buried in graves in Hampton National Cemetery, dug by German prisoners of war imprisoned at Fort Monroe.1

After Germany and the United State declared war in December 1941, five U-boats were sent to the East Coast to start Operation Drumbeat, and then waves of other boats followed. During the first half of 1942, the German submarines had great success in sinking Allied tankers and other cargo ships just off the East Coast of the United States.

The US military was warned that the U-boats were coming; the British had broken the codes of the German navy. However, the US failed to react, and even tried to hide the initial sinkings from the American public.

Destroyers were not deployed to protect shipping. Instead, the Atlantic Fleet remained dispersed from Brazil to Iceland, and top priority was given to protecting convoys sailing across the Atlantic Ocean to Iceland/Britain. Cargo ships continued to travel individually from the Gulf Coast to New York while lights on the shoreline made it easy for German submarines to spot silhouetted targets at night.2

It took six months for the American military to acquire ships and planes, to train personnel to challenge the U-boats, and to develop an effective set of defensive tactics. The US Navy and Army Air Force feuded over who had responsibility (and funding...) for aircraft patrols and bases along the seacoast. Initial efforts involved sending airplanes and ships on patrol to find and destroy U-boats, including two from Langley Field starting on December 8, 1941, but the Army and Navy did not share information initially from their patrols and the needle-in-the-haystack approach rarely had success.3

During the first six months of the war, and even into 1943, the zones of greatest danger on the East Coast were near the ports of Boston and New York, the mouths of the Delaware River and the Chesapeake Bay, and off Cape Hatteras. The narrow continental shelf near the Outer Banks enabled submarines to make night attacks on ships steaming in the 30-50-mile wide stretch between the coastline and Gulf Stream, then take advantage of the underwater topography and spend the day hovering just a few feet above the ocean bottom in deep water. In the first six months of the U-boat campaign, they sank 45 ships off the Outer Banks.4

By July 1942, coastal convoys with 40-50 merchant ships received adequate warship escorts and aerial patrols that deterred submarines from making attacks. Southbound convoys leaving Hampton Roads were identified with letters KS, while northbound convoys leaving Key West were labeled KN. The air base at Cherry Point, North Carolina served as a center of anti-submarine operations between Hampton Roads and Charleston, South Carolina. The German Navy responded by moving most U-boats to the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, where they hunted in "wolf packs," and Hitler diverted a number of submarines to protect the German ships carrying iron ore and nickel along the Norwegian coast.5

In June, 1942, as the German Navy recognized American tactics were changing and the "happy time" of sinking unprotected merchant ships was ending, U-701 penetrated into the Thimble Shoal channel of the Chesapeake Bay and laid a minefield. That was not a new concept; U-boats had also laid mines in World War I off different American ports that sank six ships. The U-701 minefield in the Thimble Shoal channel damaged or sank 5 ships in June, 1941. Three weeks later, U-701 was also the first German submarine to be destroyed by a US Army Air Force bomber attack from the air.6

Links

References

1. "U-boats in the Atlantic," Virginia Living, April 2008, http://www.virginialiving.com/virginiana/history/u-boats-in-the-atlantic/; "Hampton National Cemetery," US Department of Veterans Affairs, http://www.cem.va.gov/cems/nchp/hampton.asp (last checked November 16, 2014)
2. Ed Offley, The Burning Shore: How Hitler's U-Boats Brought World War II to America, Basic Books, 2014, p.90, p.101
3. Ed Offley, The Burning Shore: How Hitler's U-Boats Brought World War II to America, p.145, p.149, p.152
4. Ed Offley, The Burning Shore: How Hitler's U-Boats Brought World War II to America, p.3
5. Ed Offley, The Burning Shore: How Hitler's U-Boats Brought World War II to America, p.129, p.139, p.153, p.185
6. Ed Offley, The Burning Shore: How Hitler's U-Boats Brought World War II to America, pp.161-63, p.180. p.183; A. Timothy Warnock, "The Battle against the U-boat in the American Theater: December 7, 1941 - September 2, 1945," Air Force Historical Research Agency, 1994, p.11, http://www.afhso.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-100924-006.pdf (last checked November 16, 2014)


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